Etymology
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sing (v.)

Old English singan "to chant, sing, celebrate, or tell in song," also used of birds (class III strong verb; past tense sang, past participle sungen), from Proto-Germanic *sengwan (source also of Old Saxon singan, Old Frisian sionga, Middle Dutch singhen, Dutch zingen, Old High German singan, German singen, Gothic siggwan, Old Norse syngva, Swedish sjunga), from PIE root *sengwh-"to sing, make an incantation."

There are said to be no related forms in other languages, unless perhaps it is connected to Greek omphe "voice" (especially of a god), "oracle;" and Welsh dehongli "explain, interpret." The typical Indo-European root is represented by Latin canere (see chant (v.)). Other words meaning "sing" derive from roots meaning "cry, shout," but Irish gaibim is literally "take, seize," with sense evolution via "take up" a song or melody.

The criminal slang sense of "to confess to authorities" is attested from 1610s. 

Every child should be taught, from its youth, to govern its voice discreetly and dexterously, as it does its hands ; and not to be able to sing should be more disgraceful than not being able to read or write. For it is quite possible to lead a virtuous and happy life without books, or ink ; but not without wishing to sing, when we are happy ; nor without meeting with continual occasions when our song, if right, would be a kind service to others. [Ruskin, "Rock Honeycomb"]
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sing (n.)
"act of singing," especially collective, 1850, from sing (v.).
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sing-song (adj.)
also singsong, musically repetitive and unvarying, 1734, from earlier use as a noun meaning "a jingling ballad" (c. 1600), from sing (v.) + song (n.).
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sing-along 
1959, noun and adjective, from verbal phrase; see sing (v.) + along (adv.). Originally associated with U.S. music producer Mitch Miller (1911-2010).
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sung 
a past tense and past participle of sing (v.).
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singer (n.)
early 14c. (mid-13c. as a surname), agent noun from sing (v.). Old English had songer "psalm-writer," sangere "singer, poet" (also see songster).
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singspiel (n.)
1876, from German Singspiel, literally "a singing play," from singen "to sing" (see sing (v.)) + Spiel "a play" (see spiel). Kind of performance popular in Germany late 18c.
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unsung (adj.)
early 15c., "not uttered in a song," from un- (1) "not" + past participle of sing (v.). Similar formation in German ungesungen. Meaning "not celebrated" is recorded from 1660s.
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song (n.)

Old English sang "voice, song, art of singing; metrical composition adapted for singing, psalm, poem," from Proto-Germanic *songwho- (source also of Old Norse söngr, Norwegian song, Swedish sång, Old Saxon, Danish, Old Frisian, Old High German, German sang, Middle Dutch sanc, Dutch zang, Gothic saggws), from PIE *songwh-o- "singing, song," from *sengwh- "to sing, make an incantation" (see sing (v.)).

Phrase for a song "for a trifle, for little or nothing" is from "All's Well" III.ii.9 (the identical image, por du son, is in Old French. With a song in (one's) heart "feeling joy" is first attested 1930 in Lorenz Hart's lyric. Song and dance as a form of vaudeville act is attested from 1872; figurative sense of "rigmarole" is from 1895.

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