Etymology
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shrine (n.)

Middle English shrine "repository in which a holy object or the relics of a saint are kept," from late Old English scrin "ark (of the covenant); chest, coffer; case for relics," from Latin scrinium "case or box for keeping papers," a word of unknown origin.

A widespread Latin borrowing: compare Dutch schrijn, German Schrein, French écrin, (Old French escrin, escrien), Russian skrynya, Lithuanian skrinė. It is attested in English from late 14c. as "a tomb of a saint" (usually elaborate and large).  

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enshrine (v.)

in early use also inshrine, "enclose in or as in a shrine; deposit for safe-keeping," 1580s, from en- (1) "make, put in" + shrine (n.). Related: Enshrined; enshrining.

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Shriner (n.)
1882, a member of the Order of Nobles of the Mystic Shrine (established 1872).
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Heligoland 
island in the North Sea off Germany, from the same source as German heilig "holy" (see holy), in reference to an ancient shrine there.
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palmer (n.)

"pilgrim; itinerant monk going from shrine to shrine under a perpetual vow of poverty;" originally "pilgrim who has returned from the Holy Land," c. 1300, palmere (mid-12c. as a surname), from Anglo-French palmer (Old French palmier), from Medieval Latin palmarius, from Latin palma "palm tree" (see palm (n.2)). So called because they wore palm branches in commemoration of the journey. "The distinction between pilgrim and palmer seems never to have been closely observed" [Century Dictionary].

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penetralia (n.)

"inmost parts or recesses of a building," especially a temple or shrine, 1660s, from Latin plural of penetral, from penetralis "interior," from the stem of penetrare "to put or get into, enter into" (see penetrate).

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ghat (n.)
also ghaut, from Hindi, "a pass of descent from a mountain," hence also "mountain range, chain of hills," also "stairway leading up from a river" (to a shrine, temple, etc.), from Sanskrit ghattah "landing place," of unknown origin.
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kabuki (n.)

1896, from Japanese, popular theater (as opposed to shadow puppet-plays or lyrical Noh dramas).

Kabuki comes from the verb 'kabuku', meaning 'to deviate from the normal manners and customs, to do something absurd.' Today kabuki is performed only by men, but the first kabuki performance was given in about 1603 by a girl, a shrine maiden of Kyoto named O-kuni, who 'deviated from the normal customs' by dressing as a man and entertaining the public with satirical dances in the grounds of the Kitano shrine. [Toshie M. Evans, "A Dictionary of Japanese Loanwords," 1997]

Alternative etymology [Barnhart, OED] is that it means literally "art of song and dance," from ka "song" + bu "dance" + ki "art, skill."

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Lares (n.)
Roman tutelary gods and household deities, worshipped in primitive cult rites, Latin, plural of Lar, a word of unknown origin. Infernal, protective of the state and the family, they could be potently evil if offended. Their shrine in the home was a lararium.
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omphalos (n.)

also omphalus, "sacred stone," 1850, from Greek omphalos, literally "navel," later also "hub" (as the central point), from PIE *ombh-alo-, from root *nobh-/*ombh- "navel" (see navel). Especially as the name of the rounded or conical stone in the shrine at Delphi, regarded by the ancients as the center of the world. Related: Omphalic.

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