Etymology
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shirt (n.)

Old English scyrte "skirt, tunic," from Proto-Germanic *skurtjon "a short garment" (source also of Old Norse skyrta, Swedish skjorta "skirt, kirtle;" Middle Dutch scorte, Dutch schort "apron;" Middle High German schurz, German Schurz "apron"), perhaps related to Old English scort, sceort "short," etc., from PIE root *sker- (1) "to cut," on the notion of "a cut piece." Lithuanian šarkas "shirt," Old Church Slavonic sraka "tunic," Russian soročka, Finnish sarkki "shirt" perhaps are from Germanic. 

Formerly of the chief garment worn by both sexes, but in modern use long only of that for men; in reference to women's tops, reintroduced 1896. Bloody shirt, exposed as a symbol of outrage, is attested from 1580s. To give (someone) the shirt off one's back is from 1771. To lose one's shirt "suffer total financial loss" is from 1935. To keep one's shirt on "be patient" (1904) is from the notion of (not) stripping down for a fight.

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shirt-sleeves (n.)
1560s, from shirt (n.) + sleeve (n.). Usually with the notion of "without a coat."
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half-shirt (n.)
1660s, "shirt front," from half + shirt. In modern use, "shirt cropped high at the waist," 2000.
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hair-shirt (n.)
garment of ascetics and penitents, 1680s, from hair + shirt. Figurative use by 1884. Earlier, such a garment was called simply a hair (c. 1200); and compare haircloth.
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shirty (adj.)
"ill-tempered," 1846, slang, probably from shirt (n.) + -y (2), on notion of being disheveled in anger.
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sweatshirt (n.)
also sweat-shirt, 1921, from sweat (v.) + shirt. Related: Sweatshirted.
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undershirt (n.)
1640s, from under (adj.) + shirt (n.). Similar formation in North Frisian onnersjürt, Danish underskjorte. Old English had undersyrc (see sark (n.)).
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skirt (n.)
early 14c., "lower part of a woman's dress," from Old Norse skyrta "shirt, a kind of kirtle;" see shirt. Sense development from "shirt" to "skirt" is possibly related to the long shirts of peasant garb (compare Low German cognate Schört, in some dialects "woman's gown"). Sense of "border, edge" (in outskirts, etc.) first recorded late 15c. Metonymic use for "women collectively" is from 1550s; slang sense of "young woman" is from 1906; skirt-chaser first attested 1942.
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