Etymology
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shield (v.)
Old English gescildan, from the root of shield (n.). Related: Shielded; shielding. Compare German scilden.
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shield (n.)
Old English scield, scild "shield; protector, defense," literally "board," from Proto-Germanic *skelduz (source also of Old Norse skjöldr, Old Saxon skild, Middle Dutch scilt, Dutch schild, German Schild, Gothic skildus), from *skel- "divide, split, separate," from PIE root *skel- (1) "to cut." Perhaps the notion is of a flat piece of wood made by splitting a log. Shield volcano (1911) translates German Schildvulkan (1910). Plate tectonics sense is from 1906, translating Suess (1888).
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volcano (n.)
1610s, from Italian vulcano "burning mountain," from Latin Vulcanus "Vulcan," Roman god of fire, also "fire, flames, volcano" (see Vulcan). The name was first applied to Mt. Etna by the Romans, who believed it was the forge of Vulcan. Earlier form in English was volcan (1570s), from French.
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ecu (n.)
old French silver coin, 1704, from French écu, "a shield," also the name of a coin, from Old French escu (12c.) "shield, coat of arms," also the name of a coin with three fleur-de-lys stamped on it as on the shield, formerly escut, from Latin scutum "shield" (see escutcheon). First issued by Louis IX (1226-1270); so called because the shield of France was imprinted on them.
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volcanism (n.)
1819, from French volcanisme, from volcan (see volcano).
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umbo (n.)
"boss of a shield," 1921, from Latin umbo "shield-boss, knob, projection."
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buckler (n.)
"small, round shield used to ward off blows," c. 1300, from Old French bocler "boss (of a shield), shield, buckler" (12c., Modern French bouclier), from Medieval Latin *buccularius (adj.) "having a boss," from Latin buccula (see buckle (n.)).
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stratovolcano (n.)
coined in German (von Seebach, 1866), from strato- + volcano. So called for its layered structure.
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scudo (n.)

old Italian silver coin, Italian, literally "shield" (in reference to the device it bore), from Latin scutum "a shield" (see escutcheon).

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target (n.)

c. 1300, "shield," diminutive of late Old English targe, from Old French targe "light shield" (12c.), from Frankish *targa "shield," from Proto-Germanic *targ- (source also of Old High German zarga "edging, border," German zarge "border, edge, frame," Old English targe, Old Norse targa "shield, buckler"), perhaps originally "edge of a shield." Meaning "round object to be aimed at in shooting" first recorded 1757, originally in archery, perhaps suggested by the concentric circles in both. Target-practice is from 1801. Target audience is by 1951; early reference is to Cold War psychological warfare.

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