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shame (n.)

Old English scamu, sceomu "feeling of guilt or disgrace; confusion caused by shame; disgrace, dishonor, insult, loss of esteem or reputation; shameful circumstance, what brings disgrace; modesty; private parts," from Proto-Germanic *skamo (source also of Old Saxon skama, Old Norse skömm, Swedish skam, Old Frisian scome, Dutch schaamte, Old High German scama, German Scham). The best guess is that this is from PIE *skem-, from *kem- "to cover" (covering oneself being a common expression of shame).

Until modern times English had a productive duplicate form in shand. An Old Norse word for it was kinnroði, literally "cheek-redness," hence, "blush of shame." Greek distinguished shame in the bad sense of "disgrace, dishonor" (aiskhyne) from shame in the good sense of "modesty, bashfulness" (aidos). To put (someone or something) to shame is mid-13c. Shame culture attested by 1947.

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shame (v.)
Old English scamian "be ashamed, blush, feel shame; cause shame," from the root of shame (n.). Compare Old Saxon scamian, Dutch schamen, Old High German scamen, Danish skamme, Gothic skaman, German schämen sich. Related: Shamed; shaming.
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shameless (adj.)
Old English scamleas "shameless, impudent, immodest;" see shame (n.) + -less. Related: Shamelessly; shamelessness. Similar formation in Old Norse skammlauss, Dutch schaamteloos, Old High German scamalos, German schamlos.
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shameful (adj.)
Old English scamful "modest;" see shame (n.) + -ful. Meaning "disgraceful, causing shame" is from c. 1300. Related: Shamefully; shamefulness. Middle English shamely (adv.) "shamefully" for some reason has fallen from use. Old English scamlic (adj.) "shameful, disgraceful," but this also could mean "modest."
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ashamed (adj.)
Old English asceamed "feeling shame, filled with shame," past participle of ascamian "to feel shame," from a- intensive prefix + scamian "be ashamed, blush; cause shame" (see shame (v.), and compare German erschämen). The verb is obsolete, but the past participle lives on. Meaning "reluctant through fear of shame" is c. 1300. Related: Ashamedly; ashamedness.
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shamefaced (adj.)

"modest, bashful," 1550s, folk etymology alteration of shamefast, from Old English scamfæst "bashful," literally "restrained by shame," or else "firm in modesty," from shame (n.) + -fæst, adjectival suffix (see fast (adj.)). Related: Shamefacedly; shamefacedness.

shamefaced, -fast. It is true that the second is the original form, that -faced is due to a mistake, & that the notion attached to the word is necessarily affected in some slight degree by the change. But those who, in the flush of this discovery, would revert to -fast in ordinary use are rightly rewarded with the name of pedants .... [Fowler]
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sham (n.)
1670s, "a trick, a hoax, a fraud," also as a verb and an adjective, of uncertain origin; the words burst into use in 1677. Perhaps from sham, a northern dialectal variant of shame (n.); a derivation OED finds "not impossible." Sense of "something meant to be mistaken for something else" is from 1728. The meaning "false front" in pillow-sham (1721) is from the notion of "counterfeit." Related: Shammed; shamming; shammer. Shamateur "amateur sportsman who acts like a professional" is from 1896.
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shend (n.)
"shame, disgrace" (obsolete or dialectal), Old English scand "ignominy, shame, confusion, disgrace; scandal, disgraceful thing; wretch, impostor, infamous man; bad woman," from the source of Old English scamu "shame" (see shame (n.)) + -þa, with change of -m- to -n- before a dental (compare Old Frisian skande, Dutch schande, Old High German scanda, German Schande "disgrace"). Also in early Modern English as a verb, shend (Old English scendan) "put to shame; blame, reproach; bring to ruin."

It was active in forming compounds, such as shendful (Old English scandful) "shameful," shendship "disgrace;" Old English scandhus "house of ill-fame," scandlic "shameful," scandlufiende "loving shamefully," scandword "obscene language").
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impudent (adj.)
late 14c., from Latin impudentem (nominative impudens) "without shame, shameless," from assimilated form of in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + pudens "ashamed, modest," present-participle adjective from pudere "to cause shame" (see pudendum). Related: Impudently.
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outface (v.)

1520s, "to confront boldly, stare down and shame;" 1570s, "confront fearlessly," from out- + face (v.). Related: Outfaced; outfacing.

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