Etymology
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seven (adj., n.)

"1 more than six; the cardinal number which is one more than six; a symbol representing this number;" Old English seofon, from Proto-Germanic *sebun (source also of Old Saxon sibun, Old Norse sjau, Swedish sju, Danish syv, Old Frisian sowen, siugun, Middle Dutch seven, Dutch zeven, Old High German sibun, German sieben, Gothic sibun), from PIE *septm "seven" (source also of Sanskrit sapta, Avestan hapta, Hittite shipta, Greek hepta, Latin septem, Old Church Slavonic sedmi, Lithuanian septyni, Old Irish secht, Welsh saith).

Long regarded as a number of perfection (seven wonders; seven sleepers, the latter translating Latin septem dormientes; seven against Thebes, etc.), but that notion is late in Old English and in German a nasty, troublesome woman could be eine böse Sieben "an evil seven" (1662). Magical power or healing skill associated since 16c. with the seventh son ["The seuenth Male Chyld by iust order (neuer a Gyrle or Wench being borne betweene)," Thomas Lupton, "A Thousand Notable Things," 1579]. The typical number for "very great, strong," as in seven-league boots in the fairy story of Hop o'my Thumb. Also, formerly, in combination with days, years, etc., indicating merely a very long time.

By early 15c. as "the hour of 7 o'clock." As a high-stakes number for a throw in dice, late 14c. The Seven Years' War (1756-63) is also the Third Silesian War. The Seven Stars (Old English sibunsterri), usually refers to the Pleiades, though in 15c. and after this name occasionally was given to the Big Dipper (which also has seven stars), or the seven planets of classical astronomy. Popular as a tavern sign, it might also (with six in a circle, one in the center) be a Masonic symbol.

FOOL: ... The reason why the seven stars are no more than seven is a pretty reason.
LEAR: Because they are not eight?
FOOL: Yes, indeed: thou wouldst make a good fool.
["King Lear," I.v.]
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Seven Sisters 

late 14c., "the seven virtues personified;" early 15c., "the Pleiades" (see Pleiades), seven daughters of Atlas and Pleione, placed among the stars by Zeus and popularly known as the Seven Stars (see seven).

In late 20c. applied to seven venerable and prestigious U.S. colleges for women only: Barnard, Bryn Mawr, Mount Holyoke, Radcliffe, Smith, Vassar, and Wellesley. The phrase also was applied to seven similar cannon used by the Scots at Flodden. As a late-20c. name for the major multi-national petroleum companies, Seven Sisters is attested from 1962. They were listed in 1976 as Exxon, Mobil, Gulf, Standard Oil of California, Texaco, British Petroleum, and Royal Dutch Shell.

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Seven Seas (n.)

by 1823 in representations of Persian or Oriental phrases, or sometimes in reference to seven seas forming part of the Hindu cosmology or to the Talmudists' supposed seven seas of Israel (some of which are obscure lakes); see seven. It is in Burton's "Arabian Nights" (1886) and probably was popularized by one of the versions of Fitzgerald's Omar Khayyam (from which Kipling got it as a book title). To the extent that the phrase has been applied, awkwardly, to global geography, they would be the Arctic, Antarctic, North Atlantic, South Atlantic, North Pacific, South Pacific, and Indian oceans.

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sevenfold (adj.)

"having seven aspects or facets, folds or thicknesses; repeated or multiplied seven times;" Old English seofonfeald; see seven + -fold. Also as an adverb, "seven times as much or often; in seven ways."

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septet (n.)

1828, septett, "musical work for seven voices or instruments," from German Septett, from Latin septem "seven" (see seven). The meaning "company or group of seven" is attested by 1886.

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septi- 

before vowels sept-, word-forming element meaning "seven," from Latin septem (see seven). A parallel formation to septem-.

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septemvir (n.)

"one of a body of seven men," 1760, from Latin septem "seven" (see seven) + vir "man" (from PIE root *wi-ro- "man").

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benzodiazepine (n.)
1934, from benzo-, word-forming element used in chemistry to indicate presence of a benzene ring fused with another ring, + di + azo- + epine, a suffix denoting a seven-membered ring, from Greek hepta (see seven).
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sennight (n.)

"period or space of seven days and nights, a week" (archaic), a contraction by late 14c. of late Old English sefennnahht (Orm), itself from Old English seofon nihta literally "seven nights;" see seven + night. Also compare fortnight.

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hepta- 
before vowels hept-, word-forming element meaning "seven," from Greek hepta "seven," cognate with Latin septem, Gothic sibun, Old English seofon, from PIE root *septm (see seven).
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