Etymology
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senate (n.)

c. 1200, "the legal and administrative body of ancient Rome," from Old French senat or Latin senatus "highest council of the state in ancient Rome," literally "council of elders," from senex (genitive senis) "old man, old" (from PIE root *sen- "old").

It is attested from late 14c. in reference to governing bodies of free cities in Europe (Italy); of national governing bodies from 1550s (typically the upper or less-numerous branch of the legislature). The specific sense of "upper house of the U.S. legislature" is recorded from 1775.

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-ate (1)

word-forming element used in forming nouns from Latin words ending in -atus, -atum (such as estate, primate, senate). Those that came to English via French often arrived with -at, but an -e was added after c. 1400 to indicate the long vowel. The suffix also can mark adjectives formed from Latin past participles in -atus, -ata (such as desolate, moderate, separate); again, they often were adopted in Middle English as -at, with an -e appended after c. 1400.

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*sen- 
Proto-Indo-European root meaning "old."

It forms all or part of: monseigneur; seignior; senate; senescent; seneschal; senicide; senile; senility; senior; seniority; senor; senora; senorita; shanachie; Shannon; signor; sir; sire; surly.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit sanah "old;" Avestan hana- "old," Old Persian hanata- "old age, lapse of time;" Armenian hin "old;" Greek enos "old, of last year;" Latin senilis "of old age," senex "old, old man;" Lithuanian senas "old," senis "an old man;" Gothic sineigs "old" (used only of persons), sinistra "elder, senior;" Old Norse sina "dry standing grass from the previous year;" Old Irish sen, Old Welsh hen "old."
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S.P.Q.R. 
the insignia of Rome, from Latin Senatus Populusque Romanus "the Senate and People of Rome."
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senatorial (adj.)

"of or pertaining to a senate or senators," 1740, from French sénatorial or from Latin senatorius "pertaining to a senator" or formed in English from senator + -al (1). Earlier adjectives were senatory (1520s), senatorian (1610); senatorical (1610s), and the best of the lot, senatorious (1660s). Related: Senatorially.

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inferiority (n.)

"state of being inferior," 1590s, probably from Medieval Latin *inferioritas; see inferior + -ity. Inferiority complex first attested 1919.

The surrender of life is nothing to sinking down into acknowledgment of inferiority. [John C. Calhoun, Senate debate, Feb. 19, 1847]
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curia (n.)

c. 1600, one of the ten divisions of each of the three ancient Roman tribes; also "the Senate-house of Rome," from Latin curia "court," perhaps from *co-wiria "community of men" (from PIE root *wi-ro- "man"). The sense was transferred to the papal court (by 1825). Related: Curial.

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veto (n.)
1620s, from Latin veto, literally "I forbid," first person singular present indicative of vetare "forbid, prohibit, oppose, hinder," of unknown origin. In ancient Rome, the "technical term for protest interposed by a tribune of the people against any measure of the Senate or of the magistrates" [Lewis].
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consultation (n.)

early 15c., "a meeting of persons to consult together;" 1540s, "act of consulting," from Latin consultationem (nominative consultatio) "a mature deliberation, consideration," noun of action from past-participle stem of consultare "to consult, ask counsel of; reflect, consider maturely," frequentative of consulere "to deliberate, consider," originally probably "to call together," as in consulere senatum "to gather the senate" (to ask for advice), from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see con-) +  *selere "take, gather," for a total sense of "gather (the Senate) together," from PIE *selho- "to take, seize."

De Vaan writes: "Since consuleredoes not look like a derivative of consul (we would rather expect consulare), it appears that the verb was original and meant 'to get together, deliberate'."

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Bacchanalia (n.)
"drunken revelry," 1630s, from the name of the Roman festival held in honor of Bacchus, from neuter plural of Latin bacchanalis "having to do with Bacchus" (q.v.); the festivals became so notorious for excess that they were forbidden by the Senate 186 B.C.E. A participant is a Bacchant (1690s), fem. Bacchante, from French. The plural of both is Bacchantes.
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