Etymology
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Deo volente 

1767, Latin, "God willing," that is, "if nothing prevents it, if it is meant to be," a sort of verbal knock on wood, from ablative of Deus "God" (see Zeus) + ablative of volentem, present participle of velle "to wish, will" (see will (v.)). Often abbreviated D.V.

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experto crede 

Latin, "take it from one who knows" ("Aeneid," xi.283); dative singular of expertus (see expert (adj.)) + imperative singular of credere "to believe" (see credo).

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capital letter (n.)

late 14c.; see capital (adj.). So called because it is at the "head" of a sentence or word.

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amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (n.)

sclerosis of the spinal cord, causing atrophy of the muscles, 1874, in translations from French. Amyotropic is compounded from Greek elements: a- "not, without" (see a- (3)) + combining form of mys "muscle" (see muscle (n.)) + trophikos "feeding," from trophe "nourishment" (see -trophy). Also ALS, and often known in U.S. as Lou Gehrig's disease, after the New York Yankees baseball player who was diagnosed with it in 1939 and died of it in 1941.

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id est 

Latin, literally "that is (to say)," from id "that," neuter of is, from PIE pronominal stem *i- (see yon). For est, see is. Usually abbreviated i.e. "to write, or even to say, this in the full instead of in the abbreviated form is now so unusual as to convict one of affectation" [Fowler]. It introduces another way to say something already said, not an example of it (which is e.g.).

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pine-cone (n.)

"strobilus of a pine tree," 1690s, from pine (n.) + cone (n.). An earlier word for it was pine nut (Old English pinhnyte); also see pineapple.

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anorexia nervosa (n.)

"emaciation as a result of severe emotional disturbance," coined 1873 by William W. Gull, who also offered as an alternative apepsia hysterica as a name for it. See anorexia.

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ignis fatuus (n.)

"will o' the wisp, jack-o-lantern," 1560s, Medieval Latin, literally "foolish fire;" see igneous + fatuous. "It seems to have been formerly a common phenomenon; but is now exceedingly rare" [OED].

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dolce far niente 

"pleasing inactivity, sweet idleness," 1814, from Italian, literally "sweet doing nothing." The Latin roots are dulcis "sweet" (see dulcet), facere "to make, do" (see factitious), and nec entem, literally "not a being."

This phrase, frequent enough in English literature, does not seem to occur in any Italian author of note. Howells says that he found it current among Neapolitan lazzaroni, but it is not included in any collection of Italian proverbial sayings. [Walsh]
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absit omen (interj.)

Latin, literally "may this omen be absent." Added to an expression of something one does not wish to be true or come true, "may it not be ominous;" from third person singular present subjunctive of abesse "be away" (see absent (adj.)) + omen (see omen).

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