Etymology
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high seas (n.)
late 14c., from sea (n.) + high (adj.) with sense (also found in the Latin cognate) of "deep" (compare Old English heahflod "deep water," also Old Persian baršan "height; depth"). Originally "open sea or ocean," later "ocean area not within the territorial boundary of any nation."
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Seven Seas (n.)

by 1823 in representations of Persian or Oriental phrases, or sometimes in reference to seven seas forming part of the Hindu cosmology or to the Talmudists' supposed seven seas of Israel (some of which are obscure lakes); see seven. It is in Burton's "Arabian Nights" (1886) and probably was popularized by one of the versions of Fitzgerald's Omar Khayyam (from which Kipling got it as a book title). To the extent that the phrase has been applied, awkwardly, to global geography, they would be the Arctic, Antarctic, North Atlantic, South Atlantic, North Pacific, South Pacific, and Indian oceans.

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half seas over (adj.)
slang for "drunk," 1736, sometimes said to be from notion of a ship heavy-laden and so low in the water that small waves (half seas) wash over the deck. This suits the sense, but the phrase is not recorded in this alleged literal sense. Half seas over "halfway across the sea" is recorded from 1550s, however, and it was given a figurative extension to "halfway through a matter" by 1690s. What drunkenness is halfway to is not clear.
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oceanographer (n.)

"a student of the seas, one who systematically studies the ocean," 1886, agent noun from oceanography.

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epeiric (adj.)

in reference to seas covering continental shelves, 1915, from Greek ēpeiros "mainland, land, continent" (as opposed to the sea and the islands), from PIE root *apero- "shore" (source also of Old English ofer "bank, rim, shore," Old Frisian over "bank") + -ic.

As the term "continental deposits" in this sense is now ingrained in Geology, we can no longer use Dana's "continental seas" without raising a question in the mind as to what is meant when their deposits are considered. For this reason we propose here to use epeiric seas (meaning seas that lie upon the continents) for the bodies of water that lie within the continents in the downwarps of the continental masses. [Louis V. Pirsson, "A Text-Book of Geology," 1915]
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beluga (n.)

1590s, from Russian beluga, literally "great white," from belo- "white" (from PIE *bhel-o-, suffixed form of root *bhel- (1) "to shine, flash, burn," also "shining white") + augmentative suffix -uga. Originally the great white sturgeon, found in the Caspian and Black seas; later (1817) the popular name for the small white whale (Delphinapterus leucas) found in northern seas.

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Balkans 

the mountainous peninsula between the Adriatic and Black seas (including Greece), probably from Turkic.

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choppy (adj.)

1830, of seas, "running in short, irregular, broken waves," from chop (v.2) + -y (2). Earlier in this sense was chopping (1630s).

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Bahrain 
island kingdom in the Persian Gulf, from Arabic al-bahrayn "the two seas," from dual form of bahr "sea;" so called in reference to the bodies of water on either side of it. Related: Bahraini.
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engulf (v.)
1550s, from en- (1) "make, put in" + gulf (n.) or else from Old French engolfer. Originally of seas, whirlpools, etc.; by 1711 of fire and other mediums. Figurative use from 1590s. Related: Engulfed; engulfing.
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