Etymology
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scholar (n.)

Middle English scolere, from Old English scolere "student, one who receives instruction in a school, one who learns from a teacher," from Medieval Latin scholaris, "a pupil, scholar," noun use of Late Latin scholaris "of a school," from Latin schola (see school (n.1), and compare scholastic).

The Medieval Latin word was widely borrowed (Old French escoler, French écolier, Old High German scuolari, German Schüler). Not common in English before 14c. and the modern use might be a reborrowing. In British English it typically has been restricted to those who attend a school on a scholarship (1510s).

The spelling in sch- begins to appear late 14c. The broader meaning "learned person," especially one having great knowledge of philosophy and classical literature, is from late 13c.

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scholarly (adj.)

"of, pertaining to, or denoting a scholar or scholarly pursuits," 1630s, from scholar + -ly (1). "Not in Johnson or Todd" [OED]. An older word was scholarlike (1570s). Related: Scholarliness.

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scholarship (n.)

1530s, "status of a scholar," from scholar + -ship. The meaning "learning, erudition, character and qualities of a scholar" is from 1580s; the sense of "source of funds for support or maintenance of a scholar" is from 1580s.

Other nouns in similar senses are or were scholardom "the realm of scholars" (1853); scholarhood "body of scholars" (1837); scholarity, now obsolete, was "status of a scholar" (1590s), and Joyce uses scholarment.

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grammatical (adj.)

1520s, "of or pertaining to grammar," from French grammatical and directly from Late Latin grammaticalis "of a scholar," from grammaticus "pertaining to grammar" (see grammar). Related: Grammatically (c. 1400).

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festschrift (n.)
"volume of writings by various scholars presented as a tribute or memorial to a veteran scholar," 1898, from German Festschrift, literally "festival writing" (see -fest + script (n.)).
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Bembo (n.)

type face, 1930; the type was cut in 1929 based on one used in 1496 by Aldus Manutius in an edition of a work by Italian poet and scholar Pietro Bembo.

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extern (n.)

"outsider," c. 1600, from French externe "outer, outward;" as a noun, "a day-scholar," from Latin externus "outside," also used as a noun (see external). As an adjective in English from 1530s.

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Islamist (n.)
1850, "a Muslim," from Islam + -ist. Later also "scholar of Islamic studies." By 1962 specifically as "strict fundamentalist Sunni Muslim." Islamism is attested from 1747 as "the religion of the Muslims, Islam." Islamite "a Muslim" is from 1786 (1768 as an adjective); Islamize/Islamise (v.) is from 1849.
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virtuoso (n.)
1610s, "scholar, connoisseur," from Italian virtuoso (plural virtuosi), noun use of adjective meaning "skilled, learned, of exceptional worth," from Late Latin virtuosus (see virtuous). Meaning "person with great skill, one who is a master of the mechanical part of a fine art" (as in music) is first attested 1743.
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Zend (n.)
1715, "Parsee sacred book" (in full, Zend-Avesta, 1620s), from Old Persian zend, from Pahlavi zand "commentary," from Avestan zainti- "knowledge," from PIE root *gno- "to know." First used 1771 in reference to the language of the Zend-Avesta by French scholar Abraham Hyacinthe Anquetil-Duperron (1731-1805).
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