Scandinavian country from Dane, the people's name, + Danish mark "border" (see mark (n.1)). The modern form is attested from late 14c. (from earlier Denemarke, c. 1200, from Old English Dene-mearce), but originally it meant western Scandinavia generally, "the lands of the Danes and Northmen." As an adjective, Middle English had Dene-marchish.
"of or pertaining to the Scandinavian people or their languages or physical type," 1898, from French nordique (in anthropologist Joseph Deniker's system of race classifications), literally "of or pertaining to the north," from nord "north" (a loan-word from Old English; see north). Perhaps influenced by German Nordisch. As a noun, from 1901. Strictly, the blond peoples who inhabit Scandinavia and the north of Britain. As a type of skiing competition, it is attested by 1949.
surname, also Osborne, Osbourn, Osbourne, etc., a Scandinavian name (Old Norse Asbiorn, Old Danish Asbiorn) meaning literally "god-bear," from os "a god" (see Oscar) + the Germanic word for "bear" (see bear (n.)). The name is found in England before the Conquest, perhaps directly from Scandinavia; it also was common in Normandy and was brought over from thence.
"of or pertaining to Denmark or the Danes," 14c., replacing Old English Denisc "people of Denmark" (also including the Norse), with vowel change as in Dane (q.v.). As a noun, "the language of the Danes," from early 15c. Danish pastry is by 1934; shortened form danish is by 1963. It seems to have been invented in Vienna, but for some reason it was associated with Scandinavia. The Danes correctly call it Wienerbrod "Viennese bread." In reference to furniture styles, Danish modern is from 1948.
c. 1200, "an inhabitant of Normandy; one of the mixed Scandinavian-Frankish people who conquered England in 1066," late Old English, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normand, Normant, literally "North man," from a Scandinavian word meaning "northman" (see Norse), in reference to the Scandinavian warriors who overran and occupied the region of France south of the English Channel in 10c. and largely adopted the customs and language of the French.
As an adjective from 1580s. As the name for a round-arched style of medieval architecture developed in Normandy and employed in England after the conquest, it is attested from 1797. Norseman "a native of ancient Scandinavia" (1817) is not historical and appears to owe its existence to Scott. Norman-French for "the form of French spoken by the medieval Normans (and preserved until modern times in English law)" is from c. 1600.