Etymology
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salon (n.)

1690s, "large room or apartment in a palace or great house," from French salon "reception room" (17c.), from Italian salone "large hall," from sala "hall," from a Germanic source (compare Old English sele, Middle English salle, Old Norse salr "hall," Old High German sal "hall, house," German Saal), from Proto-Germanic *salaz.

This is reconstructed to be from a PIE *sel- (1) "human settlement" (source also of Old Church Slavonic selo "courtyard, village," obsolete Polish siolo, Russian selo "village," Lithuanian sala "village."

The sense of "reception room of a Parisian lady" is by 1810 (the woman who hosts one is a salonnière). The meaning "gathering of fashionable people" is by 1888; the meaning "annual exhibition of contemporary paintings and sculpture in Paris" (1875) is from its originally being held in one of the salons of the Louvre, from a secondary sense of the French word, "spacious or elegant apartment for reception of company or artistic exhibitions." Meaning "establishment for hairdressing and beauty care" is by 1913.

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saloon (n.)

1728, an Englished or otherwise deformed variant of salon (q.v.), and originally meaning the same, "spacious room set apart for reception of company or artistic display."

The specific sense of "large hall in a public place for entertainment or amusement" is from 1747; especially one on a passenger boat (by 1817); it later was used of railway cars furnished as drawing rooms (1842). The sense of "public bar" developed by 1841 in American English. Saloon-keeper "one who keeps a drinking saloon" is by 1839.

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Moog (n.)

electronic musical instrument, 1969, from Robert A. Moog (1934-2005), the U.S. engineer who invented it.

The point is that I don't design stuff for myself. I'm a toolmaker. I design things that other people want to use. [Robert Moog, interview in "Salon," 2000]
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Cubism (n.)

"early 20c. revolutionary movement in visual arts characterized (at first) by simple geometric forms," 1911, from French cubisme, from cube (see cube (n.) + -ism). Said to have been coined by French art critic Louis Vauxcelles at the 1908 Salon des Indépendants in reference to a work by Georges Braque. Related: Cubist (by 1914 as an adjective, 1920 as a noun).

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Fauvist 

movement in painting associated with Henri Matisse, 1915, from French fauve, "wild beast," a term applied in contempt to these painters by French art critic Louis Vauxcelles at Autumn Salon of 1905. The movement was a reaction against impressionism, featuring vivid use of colors. French fauve (12c.) in Old French meant "fawn-colored horse, dark-colored thing, dull," and is from Frankish *falw- or some other Germanic source, cognate with German falb "dun, pale yellowish-brown" and English fallow "brownish-yellow," from PIE root *pel- (1) "pale." Related: Fauvism (1912).

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bluestocking (n.)
also blue-stocking, 1790, derisive word for a woman considered too learned, traces to a London literary salon founded c. 1750 by Elizabeth Montagu on the Parisian model, featuring intellectual discussion instead of card games and in place of ostentatious evening attire simple dress, including notably Benjamin Stillingfleet's blue-gray tradesman's hose which he wore in place of gentleman's black silk. Hence the term, first applied in derision to the whole set by Admiral Boscawen. None of the ladies wore blue stockings. Borrowed by the neighbors in loan-translations such as French bas-bleu, Dutch blauwkous, German Blaustrumpf.
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beautician (n.)

first recorded 1924, American English (Mencken found it in the Cleveland, Ohio, telephone directory), from beauty + ending as in technician. Beauty salon is from 1912, a substitution for prosaic beauty shop (1898). Beauty parlor is from 1894.

The sudden death of a young woman a little over a week ago in a down-town "beauty parlor" has served to direct public attention to those institutions and their methods. In this case, it seems, the operator painted on or injected into the patron's facial blemish a 4-per-cent cocaine solution and then applied an electrode, the sponge of which was saturated with carbolized water. [The Western Druggist, October 1894]
Back in 1917, according to Frances Fisher Dubuc, only two persons in the beauty culture business had paid an income tax; by 1927 there were 18,000 firms and individuals in this field listed as income-tax payers. The "beautician" had arrived. [Frederick Lewis Allen, "Only Yesterday," 1931]
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