late 14c., scolden, "be abusive; be quarrelsome," from scold (n.). "Now with milder sense ... To use undignified vehemence or persistence in reproof or fault-finding" [OED]. Transitive sense "chide or find fault with" (someone) is by 1715. Related: Scolded; scolding. Among the many collections of 15th century terms of association appears a skoldenge of kempsters for "a group of wool- or flax-combers."
"embryo stage of a tapeworm," 1852, from Modern Latin scolex (plural scoleces), from Greek skōlēx "worm," related to skolyptesthai "to twist and turn" (usually said to be from PIE *skel- "bend, curve;" see scoliosis, but Beekes is dubious). Related: Scolecoid.
"lateral curvature of the spine," 1706, medical Latin, from Latinized form of Greek skoliosis "crookedness," from skolios "bent, curved," from PIE root *skel- "bend, curve," with derivatives referring to crooked parts of the body (as in Greek skelos "leg, limb; Latin scelus "malice, badness, crime;" Old High German scelah, Old English sceolh "oblique, curved, squinting;" Albanian çalë "lame"). Distinguished from lordosis and kyphosis. Related: Scoliotic.
late 14c., sconse, "candlestick or small lantern with a screen and handle," a shortening of Old French esconse "lantern, hiding place" and directly from Medieval Latin sconsa, from Latin absconsa, fem. past participle of abscondere "to hide" (see abscond). Meaning "metal bracket-candlestick fastened to a wall" is recorded from mid-15c.
mid-14c., scōpen, "to bail out, draw out with a scoop," from scoop (n.) and from Middle Low German schüppen "to draw water," Middle Dutch schoppen, from Proto-Germanic *skuppon (source also of Old Saxon skeppian, Dutch scheppen, Old High German scaphan, German schöpfen "to scoop, ladle out"), from PIE root *skeubh- (source also of Old English sceofl "shovel," Old Saxon skufla; see shove (v.)).
The meaning "remove soft or loose material with a concave instrument" is by 1620s. In the journalistic sense by 1884 (see scoop (n.)). Related: Scooped; scooping.
early 14c., scope, "utensil for bailing out," from Middle Dutch schope "bucket for bailing water," from West Germanic *skopo (source also of Middle Low German schope "ladle"), from Proto-Germanic *skop-, from PIE *(s)kep- "to cut, to scrape, to hack" (see scabies). Perhaps to English in part from Old French escope, Old North French escoupe. Compare Dutch schop "a spade," related to German Schüppe "a shovel," also "a spade at cards."
The meaning "hand-shovel with a short handle and a deep, hollow receptacle" is from late 15c. The extended sense of "instrument for gouging out a piece" is by 1706. Meaning "action of scooping" is from 1742; that of "amount in a scoop" is from 1832. The colloquial sense of "a big haul," as if in a scoop-net, is by 1893. The journalistic sense of "the securing and publication of exclusive information in advance of a rival" is by 1874, American English, from earlier commercial slang verbal sense of "appropriate so as to exclude competitors" (c. 1850).
1660s, "one who scoops;" 1837 as a tool for scooping, especially one used by wood-engravers; agent noun from scoop (v.).
1758, "run, fly, make off, move suddenly or swiftly," perhaps originally nautical slang, of uncertain origin, possibly from a Scandinavian source such as Old Norse skjota "to shoot," and thus related to shoot (v.). There are similar words in dialect and jargon, but the connection is unclear. OED suspects the word became obsolete in British English early 19c. and was re-introduced from America. From 1805 as "flow or gush out with force" (Scottish). Related: Scooted; scooting. As a noun from 1864, "act or action of scooting."