nation in Eastern Europe with a large possession in north Asia, 1530s, from Medieval Latin Russi "the people of Russia," from Rus, the native name of the people and the country (source of Arabic Rus, Medieval Greek Rhos), originally the name of a group of Swedish merchant/warriors who established themselves around Kiev 9c. and founded the original Russian principality; perhaps from Ruotsi, the Finnish name for "Sweden," from Old Norse Roþrslandi, "the land of rowing," old name of Roslagen, where the Finns first encountered the Swedes. This is from Old Norse roðr "steering oar," from Proto-Germanic *rothra- "rudder" (from PIE *rot-ro-, from root *ere- "to row").
Derivation from the IE root for "red," in reference to hair color, is considered less likely. Russian city-states were founded and ruled by Vikings and their descendants. The Russian form of the name, Rossiya, appears to be from Byzantine Greek Rhosia.
Russification is attested from 1842; Russianization by 1891.
mid-15c., rustik, "associated with the country, rural," from Latin rusticus "of the country, rural; country-like, plain, simple, rough, coarse, awkward," from rus (genitive ruris) "open land, country" (see rural).
From 1580s, of persons, "having the look and manner of country folk, wanting refinement." By 1590s of rude or undressed workmanship. By c. 1600 as "plain and simple, having the charm of the country."
The noun meaning "a country person, peasant" is from 1550s (also in classical Latin). Related: Rustical "living in the country," early 15c., rusticalle, from Medieval Latin rusticalis.
"utopian," 1896, from Ruritania, name of an imaginary kingdom in "The Prisoner of Zenda" (1894) by Anthony Hope (1863-1933), who coined it from Latin rus (genitive ruris) "country" (see rural) + Latinate ending -itania (as in Lusitania, Mauritania). Ruritania as a recognizable generic name for an imaginary country lasted into the 1970s.
region in northeastern Germany, late 14c., Prusse (late 13c. as a surname), from Medieval Latin Borussi, Prusi, Latinized forms of the native name of the Lithuanian people who lived in the bend of the Baltic before being conquered 12c. and exterminated by (mostly) German crusaders who replaced them as the inhabitants.
Perhaps from Slavic *Po-Rus "(Land) Near the Rusi" (i.e. Russians; compare Pomerania). The German duchy of Prussia after the 17c. union with the Mark of Brandenberg became the core of the Prussian monarchy and later the chief state in the German Empire. The center of power shifted to Berlin after the union, and the old core of the state came to be known as East Prussia.
masc. proper name, from Old French rousel, diminutive of rous "red," used as a personal name. See russet. Also a name for a fox, in allusion to its color. Compare French rousseau, which, like it, has become a surname. Russell's Paradox, "the set of all sets that do not contain themselves as elements," is named for Bertrand Russell (1872-1970) who is said to have framed it about 1901.
"covered or affected with rust, rusted," Old English rustig; see rust (n.) + -y (2). Cognate with Frisian roastich, Middle Dutch roestich, Dutch roestig, Old High German rostag, German rostig.
"In the 16th and 17th centuries frequently used as a term of general disparagement" [OED]. In plant an animal names, "having the color of rust." Of bodily skills, "impaired by neglect," from c. 1500; extended to mental qualities, learning, skills, accomplishments, etc., by 1796. Related: Rustily; rustiness.
"native or citizen of Russia," 1530s, from Medieval Latin Russianus, from Russia (see Russia). Slang or colloquial or slang Russki, Ruski "Russian" (by 1858) is from Russian Russkiy. Russian roulette attested from 1937. Russian dressing for salads is from 1915. The expression scratch a Russian, find a Tatar, frequent from 1842 and conventional wisdom on the topic, might be from a French original.
1650s, "to go or retire into the country, live a country life," from Latin rusticatus, past participle of rusticarti "to live in the country," from rusticus (see rustic). In English university slang 18c.-19c., transitive, "to suspend (a student) from studies for a time and send away as punishment." Related: Rusticated; rusticating.
early 15c., "the dodging movements of a hunted animal" (a sense now obsolete); 1620s as "a trick, a stratagem, an artifice," from Old French ruse, reuse "diversion, switch in flight; trick, jest" (14c.), a noun from reuser "to dodge, repel, retreat; deceive, cheat," which is from Latin recusare "make an objection against; decline, refuse, reject; be reluctant to" (see recuse; also compare rush (v.)).
It also has been proposed that the French word may be from Latin rursus "backwards," or a Vulgar Latin form of refusare. Johnson calls it, "A French word neither elegant nor necessary."
The verb ruse was in Middle English (rusen), mid-14c. as "drive (someone) back in battle," also "retreat, give ground, withdraw;" late 14c., of game animals "travel so as to elude pursuit." The noun also was used in Middle English in the sense of "roundabout course taken by a hunter in pursuit of prey."
"to emit soft, rapid sounds when in motion," late 14c. (implied in rustling "moving about noisily"), a word of uncertain origin, perhaps imitative (compare Middle Low German ruschen, Middle Dutch ruusscen, German rauschen "to rustle"). Related: Rustled; rustling.
The meaning "steal" (especially cattle) is attested by 1882, and is probably from earlier Western U.S. slang rustle "make, do, secure, etc. in a vigorous way" (1844), which is perhaps a separate word, compounded from rush and hustle. Compare sense developments in bustle (v.), hustle (v.), and compare rustler. To rustle up (transitive) in the general sense of "gather up, round up" is by 1896.