Etymology
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long run (n.)

also long-run, "ultimate outcome," 1620s, from long (adj.) + run (n.); the notion is "when events have run their course," as in the phrase in the long run "after a long course of experience." As an adjective from 1804.

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Gretna Green 

town in Scotland just across the border, proverbial from late 18c. as the customery place for English couples to run off and be married without parental consent.

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pig iron (n.)

"iron in pigs," as it comes from a blast furnace, iron that has been run while molten into a mold in sand, 1660s; see pig (n.2) + iron (n.).

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grand prix 

1863, French, literally "great prize," originally in English in reference to the Grand Prix de Paris, international horse race for three-year-olds, run every June at Longchamps beginning in 1863.

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dead reckoning (n.)

"ascertaining of the position of a ship by measurement of the distance run" (without observation of heavenly bodies), 1610s, perhaps from nautical abbreviation ded. ("deduced") in log books, but it also fits dead (adj.) in the sense of "unrelieved, absolute."

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charter school (n.)

older uses refer to schools in Ireland begun 1733 by the Charter Society to provide Protestant education to poor Catholic children. Modern use in U.S. began c. 1988, as an alternative to state-run public education. See charter (n.).

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red herring (n.)

"smoked herring" early 15c. (they turn red when cured), as opposed to white herring "fresh herring." Supposedly used by fugitives to put bloodhounds off their scent (1680s), hence metaphoric sense (1864) of "something used to divert attention from the basic issue;" earlier it simply meant "a false lead":

Though I have not the honour of being one of those sagacious country gentlemen, who have so long vociferated for the American war, who have so long run on the red-herring scent of American taxation before they found out there was no game on foot; (etc.) [Parliamentary speech dated March 20, 1782, reprinted in "Beauties of the British Senate," London, 1786]
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