Etymology
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ruler (n.)

late 14c., "one who rules or governs," especially in reference to superior or sovereign authority, agent noun from rule (v.). The meaning "instrument used for guiding a pen, etc. in making straight lines" is by c. 1400 (compare rule (n.), the older word for this).

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dynast (n.)

"hereditary ruler," 1630s, from Late Latin dynastes, from Greek dynastes "ruler, chief, lord, master" (see dynasty).

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Flaherty 

surname, Irish Flaithbheartach, literally "Bright-Ruler."

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Theodoric 

masc. proper name, from Late Latin Theodoricus, from Gothic, literally "ruler of the people," from Gothic þiuda "people" (see Teutonic) + *reiks "ruler" (see Reich). For spelling, see Theobald. The French form of the name, via the Franks, is Thierry.

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governor (n.)

c. 1300, gouernour, "personal keeper, protector, guide;" late 14c., "one who governs, a ruler," from Old French governeor "prince, ruler, administrator; helmsman" (11c., Modern French gouverneur) and directly from Latin gubernatorem (nominative gubernator) "director, ruler, governor," originally "steersman, pilot" (see govern). Meaning "subordinate ruler; head of a province, etc." is from late 14c. Meaning "one charged with direction or control of an institution, etc." is from late 14c. Mechanical sense of "self-acting regulator" is from 1819. The adjective gubernatorial remembers the Latin form. There is a record of English governator from 1520s.

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-arch 

word-forming element meaning "a ruler," from Greek arkhos "leader, chief, ruler," from arkhē "beginning, origin, first place," verbal noun of arkhein "to be the first," hence "to begin" and "to rule" (see archon).

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sovereign (n.)

late 13c., "superior, ruler, master," from Old French soverain "sovereign, lord, ruler," noun use of adjective meaning "highest, supreme, chief" (see sovereign (adj.)). Meaning "gold coin worth 22s 6d" first recorded late 15c.; value changed 1817 to 1 pound.

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Eric 

masc. proper name, from Old Norse Eirikr, literally "honored ruler," from Proto-Germanic *aiza- "honor" + *rik- "ruler" (from PIE root *reg- "move in a straight line," with derivatives meaning "to direct in a straight line," thus "to lead, rule"). The German form is Erich.

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Negus 

title of the ruler of Abyssinia, 1590s, from Amharic (Semitic) negush "king," from stem of nagasha "he forced, ruled."

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exarch (n.)

historically, "a ruler of a province in the Byzantine Empire;" in the early Church, "a prelate presiding over a diocese;" in the Greek Church, a legate of a patriarch; from Late Latin exarchus, from Greek exarkhos "a leader," from ex (see ex-) + arkhos "leader, chief, ruler" (see archon). Related: Exarchate.

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