c. 1400, resumen, "repossess, resume possession" (of goods, money, etc.); early 15c., "regain, take back, take to oneself anew" (courage, strength, hope, etc.); from Old French resumer (14c.) and directly from Latin resumere "take again, take up again, assume again," from re- "again" (denoting "repetition of an action;" see re-) + sumere "to take, obtain, buy," from sus‑, variant of sub‑ "up from under" + emere "to take" (from PIE root *em- "to take, distribute").
From mid-15c. as "recommence, continue (a practice, custom, occupation, etc.), begin again after interruption;" also "begin again." The intransitive sense of "proceed after interruption" is from 1802. Related: Resumed; resuming.
also résumé, 1804, "a summary, summing up, recapitulation," from French résumé, noun use of past participle of resumer "to sum up," from Latin resumere "take again, take up again" (see resume (v.)). Meaning "biographical summary of a person's career" is 1940s.
mid-15c., resumpcion, "repossessing (by royal authority) of lands, goods, etc., previously granted to someone," a feudal term, from Old French resumption, resompcion, and directly from Medieval Latin resumptionem (nominative resumptio) "a taking up again," noun of action from past-participle stem of Latin resumere "take again, take up again, assume again" (see resume (v.)). The general sense of "act of resuming; a taking up or commencing again" is from 1580s. In 19c. U.S. history, "a return to specie payments by the government."
also reentry, mid-15c., reentre, "act of entering again," from re- "again" + entry; probably on model of Old French rentree. Originally especially of the right to resume possession of lands or estates; specifically of spacecraft returning through the atmosphere from 1948. Re-entering as a noun is from 1630s; re-entrance (1901) was introduced as a technical term.
late 14c., reneuen, "make (something) like new, refurbish; begin (an activity) again; replenish, replace with a fresh supply; restore (a living thing) to a vigorous or flourishing state," also figurative, of spiritual states, souls, etc.; from re- "again" + Middle English newen, neuen "resume, revive, renew" (see new). A Latin-Germanic hybrid formed on analogy of Latin renovare. From early 15c. as "be restored, flourish once more." Related: Renewed; renewing.
early 15c., recognisen, "resume possession of land," a back-formation from recognizance, or else from Old French reconoiss-, present-participle stem of reconoistre "to know again, identify, recognize," from Latin recognoscere "acknowledge, recall to mind, know again; examine; certify," from re- "again" (see re-) + cognoscere "to get to know, recognize" (see cognizance).
With ending assimilated to verbs in -ise, -ize. The meaning "know (the object) again, recall or recover the knowledge of, perceive an identity with something formerly known or felt" is recorded from 1530s. Related: Recognized; recognizing.
"regularly recurring phrase in a poem, chorus, or song," late 14c., refreine, from Old French refrain "chorus" (13c.), an alteration of refrait, a noun use of the past participle of refraindre "to repeat," also "to break off," from Vulgar Latin *refrangere "break off," alteration of Latin refringere "break up, break open" (see refraction) by influence of frangere "to break."
The word was further influenced in French by cognate Provençal refranhar "singing of birds, refrain." The notion is of something that causes a song to "break off" then resume. OED says not common before 19c. For "act of refraining," refraining (mid-14c.) and refrainment (1711) have been used.
Middle English neue, from Old English neowe, niowe, earlier niwe "made or established for the first time, fresh, recently made or grown; novel, unheard-of, different from the old; untried, inexperienced, unused," from Proto-Germanic *neuja- (source also of Old Saxon niuwi, Old Frisian nie, Middle Dutch nieuwe, Dutch nieuw, Old High German niuwl, German neu, Danish and Swedish ny, Gothic niujis "new").
This is from PIE *newo- "new" (source also of Sanskrit navah, Persian nau, Hittite newash, Greek neos, Lithuanian naujas, Old Church Slavonic novu, Russian novyi, Latin novus, Old Irish nue, Welsh newydd "new").
From mid-14c. as "novel, modern" (Gower, 1393, has go the new foot "dance the latest style"). In the names of cities and countries named for some other place, c. 1500. Meaning "not habituated, unfamiliar, unaccustomed," 1590s. Of the moon from late Old English. The adverb, "newly, for the first time," is Old English niwe, from the adjective. As a noun, "that which is new," also in Old English. There was a verb form in Old English (niwian, neowian) and Middle English (neuen) "make, invent, create; bring forth, produce, bear fruit; begin or resume (an activity); resupply; substitute," but it seems to have fallen from use.
New Testament is from late 14c. New math in reference to a system of teaching mathematics based on investigation and discovery is from 1958. New World (adj.) to designate phenomena of the Western Hemisphere first attested 1823, in Lord Byron; the noun phrase is recorded from 1550s. New Deal in the FDR sense is attested by 1932. New school in reference to the more advanced or liberal faction of something is from 1806. New Left (1960) was a coinage of U.S. political sociologist C. Wright Mills (1916-1962). New light in reference to religions is from 1640s. New frontier, in U.S. politics, "reform and social betterment," is from 1934 (Henry Wallace) but associated with John F. Kennedy's use of it in 1960.