from Arawak haiti "land of mountains," and probably originally the name of the whole island. Related: Haitian.
"state in which supreme or executive power rests in the people via representatives chosen by citizens entitled to vote," c. 1600, from French république (15c.), from Latin respublica (ablative republica) "the common weal, a commonwealth, state, republic," literally res publica "public interest, the state," from res "affair, matter, thing" (see re) + publica, fem. of publicus "public" (see public (adj.)).
Applied to particular states so constituted by 1630s. The notion of "community in which there is a certain equality of members" is behind such expressions as republic of letters "collective body of those engaged in literary pursuits," attested from 1702.
"small Central American state with an economy dependent on banana production," 1901, American English.
"native or inhabitant of the Dominican Republic," 1853, from the name of the republic, which became independent from Haiti in 1844; formerly it was Santo Domingo, the name of the capital and of the European colony established there in 1494, which was named for Santo Domingo de Guzmán, founder of the Order of the Dominicans, who established a presence there (see Dominican (1)).
1712, "belonging to a republic, of the nature of a republic, consonant to the principles of a republic," from republic + -an. With capital R-, "of, pertaining to, or favoring one of the various American parties that have been called Republican," by 1806 (the modern GOP dates from 1854). The French republican calendar was in use from Nov. 26, 1793 to Dec. 31, 1805. Earlier adjectives included republical (1650s), republicarian (1680s).
Central and South American name for the cassava plant, 1550s, from Spanish yuca, juca (late 15c.), probably from Taino, native language of Haiti.
1926, from Russian, initialism (acronym) for Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika "Soviet Socialist Republic."
"national language of the Republic of the Philippines," 1936, from Tagalog form of obsolete Spanish Pilipino (see Filipino).
acronym for Army of the Republic of Vietnam, ground military force of South Vietnam, organized 1955.
1550s, "the grain of Indian corn;" 1580s of the cereal plant of the grass family that produces it, from Cuban Spanish maiz, from Arawakan (Haiti) mahiz, the native name of the plant. In Europe it was formerly also called Turkey corn; like the fowl, this is from mistaken notions of its origin.