Etymology
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render (v.)

late 14c., rendren, rendre, "repeat, say again, recite; translate," from Old French rendre "give back, present, yield" (10c.) and Medieval Latin rendere, from Vulgar Latin *rendere, a variant of Latin reddere "give back, return, restore," from red- "back" (see re-) + combining form of dare "to give" (from PIE root *do- "to give").

The alteration in Vulgar Latin was perhaps simply nasalization or perhaps on analogy of its antonym, prendre "to take" (itself a contraction of prehendere). The irregular retention of -er in a French verb in English is perhaps to avoid confusion with native rend (v.) or by influence of a Middle English legalese noun render "a payment of rent," which is in part from French noun use of the infinitive.

The sense of "reduce," in reference to fats, "clarify by boiling or steaming" also is from late 14c. The meaning "hand over, yield up, deliver" is recorded from c. 1400; sense of "to return" (thanks, a verdict, etc.) is attested from late 15c., as is that of "make or cause to be) in a certain state; the meaning "represent, depict" is attested from 1590s. Related: Rendered; renderer; rendering. Also compare rendition, rent (n.1).

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render (n.1)

"one who tears by violence," 1580s, agent noun from rend (v.).

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render (n.2)

late 14c., rendre, a legal term, "act of yielding, giving, or restoring; a return, a payment," especially of rent; see render (v.). Probably at least in part from French noun use of the infinitive.

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rendering (n.)

mid-15c., "a giving back, yielding, action of restoring," verbal noun from render (v.). Meaning "a translation, act of translating" is from 1640s; that of "extracting or melting of fat" is from 1792. The visual and dramatic arts sense of "reproduction, representation" is from 1862. The earlier noun was simply render (late 14c.).

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tender (v.)

"to offer formally," 1540s, from French tendre "to offer, hold forth" (11c.), from Latin tendere "to stretch, extend," from PIE root *ten- "to stretch." The retention of the ending of the French infinitive is unusual (see render (v.) for another example).

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surrender (v.)
mid-15c., "to give (something) up," from Old French surrendre "give up, deliver over" (13c.), from sur- "over" (see sur- (1)) + rendre "give back" (see render (v.)). Reflexive sense of "to give oneself up" (especially as a prisoner) is from 1580s. Related: Surrendered; surrendering.
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rendition (n.)

c. 1600, "fact of yielding up," originally especially "surrender of a place or possession," from obsolete French rendition "a rendering," noun of action from Old French rendre "to deliver, to yield" (see render (v.)). Latin redditio meant "a giving back."

Meaning "translation, act of translating" is by 1650s; that of "a giving out, an acting, a performing" is by 1858 [Bartlett], American English.

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rendezvous (n.)

1590s, "place appointed for assembling of troops," from French rendez-vous, noun use of rendez vous "present yourselves," from the wording of orders, from rendez, second person plural imperative of rendre "to present" (see render (v.)) + vous "you" (from Latin vos, from PIE *wos- "you" (plural)). General sense of "appointed place of meeting" is attested from 1590s; from c. 1600 as "a meeting held by appointment."

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rent (n.1)

[payment for use of property], mid-12c., in a legal sense, "compensation made periodically, with reference to time of possession and use of property," from Old French rente "payment due; profit, income" and Medieval Latin renta, both from Vulgar Latin *rendita, noun use of fem. past participle of *rendere "to render" (see render (v.)).

It came into English earlier in a more general, and now obsolete, sense of "income, revenue" (late Old English). The sense in political economy, "what is left from the produce of the soil after deducting what is necessary to support the producers, interest, seed-corn, etc.," is by 1815. Rent-free is attested from 1630s.

Rents (to think how much of evil there is in the two senses of that four-lettered word ! In the two methods of intonation of its synonym, Tear !) [Ruskin, "Fors Claveriga"]
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*do- 

*dō-, Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to give."

It forms all or part of: add; anecdote; antidote; betray; condone; dacha; dado; data; date (n.1) "time;" dative; deodand; die (n.); donation; donative; donor; Dorian; Dorothy; dose; dowager; dower; dowry; edition; endow; Eudora; fedora; Isidore; mandate; Pandora; pardon; perdition; Polydorus; render; rent (n.1) "payment for use of property;" sacerdotal; samizdat; surrender; Theodore; Theodosia; tradition; traitor; treason; vend.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit dadati "gives," danam "offering, present;" Old Persian dadatuv "let him give;" Greek didomi, didonai, "to give, offer," dōron "gift;" Latin dare "to give, grant, offer," donum "gift;" Armenian tam "to give;" Old Church Slavonic dati "give," dani "tribute;" Lithuanian duoti "to give," duonis "gift;" Old Irish dan "gift, endowment, talent," Welsh dawn "gift."

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