Etymology
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reference (n.)

1580s, "act of referring" (some matter, to someone for consideration), from refer + -ance, or else from French référence, from Medieval Latin *referentia, from Latin referentem (nominative referens), present participle of referre.

Meaning "direction to a book or passage" where certain information may be found is recorded from 1610s. By 1837 as "one who or that which may be referred to." The meaning "testimonial" is from 1895. Reference book , a dictionary, encyclopedia, or similar book intended to be consulted as occasion requires, dates from 1808; reference library is by 1834. Phrase in reference to is attested from 1590s. "By slipshod extension, the word is often now made to mean a person to whom r[eference] is permitted as a witness to character, & even a written testimonial" [Fowler, 1926]. The earlier word for "one who gives characters for people seeking employment" was referee (1862) but this word had a bad savor, of literate accomplices of professional beggars and thieves.

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reference (v.)

1620s, "to assign;" as "to provide a reference to, find by reference," from 1837 (implied in referenced); from reference (n.). Related: Referencing.

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cross-reference (n.)

also crossreference, "a reference in a book to another part of it," 1834, from cross- + reference (n.). As a verb, "refer to by cross-reference," attested by 1851. Related: Cross-referenced; cross-referencing.

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referential (adj.)

"relating to or having reference to," 1650s, from reference (n.) on model of inferential, etc. Related: Referentially.

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referral (n.)

1920, "act of referring," from refer + -al (2). Especially to an expert or specialist, for advice (a sense attested by 1955 in social work). Earlier word was referment (1550s), and compare reference (n.).

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*bher- (1)

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to carry," also "to bear children."

It forms all or part of: Aberdeen; amphora; anaphora; aquifer; auriferous; bairn; barrow (n.1) "frame for carrying a load;" bear (v.); bearing; Berenice; bier; birth; bring; burden (n.1) "a load;" carboniferous; Christopher; chromatophore; circumference; confer; conference; conifer; cumber; cumbersome; defer (v.2) "yield;" differ; difference; differentiate; efferent; esophagus; euphoria; ferret; fertile; Foraminifera; forbear (v.); fossiliferous; furtive; indifferent; infer; Inverness; Lucifer; metaphor; odoriferous; offer; opprobrium; overbear; paraphernalia; periphery; pestiferous; pheromone; phoresy; phosphorus; Porifera; prefer; proffer; proliferation; pyrophoric; refer; reference; semaphore; somniferous; splendiferous; suffer; transfer; vociferate; vociferous.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit bharati "he carries, brings," bhrtih "a bringing, maintenance;" Avestan baraiti "carries;" Old Persian barantiy "they carry;" Armenian berem "I carry;" Greek pherein "to carry," pherne "dowry;" Latin ferre "to bear, carry," fors (genitive fortis) "chance, luck," perhaps fur "a thief;" Old Irish beru/berim "I catch, I bring forth," beirid "to carry;" Old Welsh beryt "to flow;" Gothic bairan "to carry;" Old English and Old High German beran, Old Norse bera "barrow;" Old Church Slavonic birati "to take;" Russian brat' "to take," bremya "a burden," beremennaya "pregnant."

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unbroken (adj.)
c. 1300, in reference to vows or compacts, from un- (1) "not" + broken. Attested from late 15c. in reference to material things; 1510s in reference to courage, spirit, etc.; 1530s in reference to horses; 1560s in reference to the flow of time. Old English had ungebrocen.
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first-class (adj.)
"of the highest class" with reference to some standard of excellence, 1837, from first (adj.) + class (n.). Specifically in reference to conveyances for travel, 1846. In reference to U.S. Mail, 1875.
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germy (adj.)
1912 in reference to microbes, from germ + -y (2). From 1889 in reference to wheat.
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socialization (n.)
1839, in reference to personal associations; 1884 in reference to socialism; noun of action from socialize.
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