Etymology
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prairie (n.)

"tract of level or undulating grassland in North America," by 1773, from French prairie "meadow, grassland," from Old French praerie "meadow, pastureland" (12c.), from Vulgar Latin *prataria, from Latin pratum "meadow," originally "a hollow," a word of uncertain origin; de Vaan suggests PIE *prh-to- "allotted."

The word existed in early Middle English as prayere, praiere, but was lost and reborrowed in 18c. from Hennepin and other French writers to describe the fertile but treeless parts of the American plains.

These are the gardens of the Desert, these
The unshorn fields, boundless and beautiful,
For which the speech of England has no name—
The Prairies. 
[William Cullen Bryant, from "The Prairies"]

Prairie dog for the burrowing rodent of the American grasslands, is attested from 1774, so called for its cry, which is like the barking of a dog; prairie schooner "covered wagon used by emigrants in freighting on the prairies and Great Plains before the construction of transcontinental railroads" is from 1841. Illinois has been the Prairie State at least since 1861. In Latin, Neptunia prata was poetic for "the sea."

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prairie-oyster (n.)

"salted and peppered raw egg, drunk in booze or vinegar," by 1878, American English, from prairie + oyster (in reference to the taste or the method of consuming it). Also called prairie-cocktail (1889). Prairie-oyster as "fried calf testicle," considered a delicacy, is by 1941.

PRAIRIE OYSTER. This simple but very nutritious drink may be taken by any person of the most delicate digestion, and has become one of the most popular delicacies since its introduction by me at Messrs. Spiers and Pond's. Its mode of preparation is very simple. Into a wine glass pat a new-laid egg ; add half a tea-spoonful of vinegar, dropping it gently down on the inside of the glass ; then drop on the yolk a little common salt, sufficient not to quite cover half the size of a threepenny-piece; pepper according to taste, The way to take this should be by placing the glass with the vinegar furthest from the mouth and swallow the contents. The vinegar being the last gives it more of an oyster-like flavour. [Leo Engel, "American & Other Drinks," London, 1878]
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Prado (n.)

public park and promenade in Madrid, 1640s, Spanish, from Latin pratum "meadow" (see prairie). Compare Prater, name of a large park in Vienna, German, from Italian prato "meadow." French preau "little meadow" (formerly praël), Italian pratello are from Vulgar Latin *pratellum, diminutive of pratum.

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Teton (n.)

member of a western Sioux people, 1806, from Dakota titonwan, literally "dwellers on the prairie," from thi + huwa. Not related to the Grand Teton mountain range.

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white-out (n.)

1946 as an extreme snow condition on the U.S. prairie, from white as a verb + out (adv.). From 1977 as a liquid correction for paper.

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coyote (n.)

common prairie-wolf of western North America, 1759, American English, from Mexican Spanish coyote, from Nahuatl (Aztecan) coyotl. Noted for its howling at night.

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jack-rabbit (n.)

also jackrabbit, large prairie hare, 1863, American English, shortening of jackass-rabbit (1851; see jackass + rabbit (n.)); so called for its long ears. Proverbial for bursts of speed (up to 45 mph).

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Chihuahua (n.)

 city and state in Mexico, said to be from a lost native word that meant "dry place." The dog breed is attested by that name from 1854, though such dogs seem to have been bred there long before. Early American explorers in the west seem to have confused the somewhat with prairie dogs.

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swale (n.)

"low, hollow place, often boggy," 1580s, special use of Scottish swaill "low, hollow place," or East Anglian dialectal swale "shady place" (mid-15c.); both probably from Old Norse svalr "cool," from Proto-Germanic *swalaz. A local word in England, in U.S. given broad application, especially to the lower tracts of the prairie and recently to landscaping features in suburban developments.

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llano (n.)

1610s, American Spanish, "prairie; treeless, level plain," especially that of South America north of the Amazon, from noun use of Spanish llano "plain, even, level, smooth," ultimately from Latin planus "smooth, flat, level" (from PIE root *pele- (2) "flat; to spread"). Hence llanero "Latin-American cowboy" (1819), literally "plainsman."

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