Etymology
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population (n.)

1610s, "whole number of inhabitants in a country, state, county, town, etc," from Late Latin populationem (nominative populatio) "a people; a multitude," as if from Latin populus "a people" (see people (n.)). From 1776 as "act or process of peopling" (a country, etc.). Population explosion "rapid or sudden increase in the size of a population" is attested by 1953.

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overpopulation (n.)

also over-population, "excess of population," 1807, from over- + population. Malthus (1798) had over-populousness.

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depopulation (n.)

early 15c., depopulacioun, "ravaging, pillaging, destruction," possibly also "destruction or expulsion of inhabitants," from Old French depopulacion and directly from Latin depopulationem (nominative depopulatio) "a laying waste, marauding, pillaging;" see de- + population.

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spanandry (n.)
"extreme scarcity of males in a population," 1924, from French spananderie (1913), from Greek spanis "scarcity" + aner "man."
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repopulate (v.)

also re-populate, "to people anew, supply with a new population," 1590s, from re- "again" + populate (v.). Related: Repopulated; repopulating; repopulation.

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Eurafrican (adj.)
1884 of the region of the Atlantic beside both continents; ; see Euro- + African Transferred or re-coined to describe the "colored" population of South Africa (1920s) and political situations involving both continents (1909).
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Malthusian (n.)

1812 (n.) "a follower of English economist Thomas R. Malthus (1766-1835)," especially with regard to the doctrines set forth in his "Essay on the Principle of Population" (published anonymously in 1798).

In this work he first made prominent the fact that population, unless hindered by positive checks, as wars, famines, etc., or by preventive checks, as social customs that prevent early marriage, tends to increase at a higher rate than the means of subsistence can, under the most favorable circumstances, be made to increase. As a remedy he advocated the principle that society should aim to diminish the sum of vice and misery, and check the growth of population, by the discouragement of early and improvident marriages, and by the practice of moral self-restraint. [Century Dictionary]

As an adjective, "of or pertaining to Malthus," by 1818. Related: Malthusianism "theory of the relation of population to the means of subsistence" (1825). The surname is attested from late 13c., and probably means "worker at a malt-house."

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natality (n.)

late 15c., "birth" (Caxton), a sense now obsolete, from natal + -ity. Sense of "birth-rate, ratio of the number of births in a given period to the total of the population" is from 1884, from French natalité, used in the same sense.

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Irredentist (n.)
1882, member of Italian political party formed 1878 which demanded the annexation of neighboring regions where a part of the population was Italian-speaking (Trieste, South Tyrol, Nice, Corsica, etc.); from Italian Irredentista, from irredenta (Italia) "unredeemed (Italy)," fem. of irredento, from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + redento, from Latin redemptus, past participle of redimere (see redemption). Related: Irredentism.
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populate (v.)

"to people, inhabit; form or furnish the population of a country, etc.," 1610s, from Medieval Latin populatus, past participle of populare "inhabit, to people," from Latin populus "inhabitants, people, nation" (see people (n.)). Earlier in English it was an adjective, "peopled, populated" (1570s). Related: Populated; populating.

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