Etymology
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pope (n.)

"the Bishop of Rome as head of the Roman Catholic Church," c. 1200, from Old English papa (9c.), from Church Latin papa "bishop, pope" (in classical Latin, "tutor"), from Greek papas "patriarch, bishop," originally "father" (see papa).

Applied to bishops of Asia Minor and taken as a title by the Bishop of Alexandria c. 250. In the Western Church, applied especially to the Bishop of Rome since the time of Leo the Great (440-461), the first great asserter of its privileges, and claimed exclusively by them from 1073 (usually in English with a capital P-). Popemobile, his car, is from 1979. Pope's nose for "fleshy part of the tail of a bird" is by 1895. Papal, papacy, later acquisitions in English, preserve the original vowel.

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popish (adj.)

"of or pertaining to the Pope or the Roman Catholic Church," 1520s, a hostile coinage from Pope + -ish.

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popery (n.)

"doctrines, customs, ceremonies, etc. of the Pope or the Roman Catholic Church," 1530s, a hostile coinage of the Reformation, from pope + -ery. Earlier, non-hostile words along the same sense lines were popedom (Old English) "the office or dignity of a Pope;" popehood (Old English papan-had) "condition of being Pope."

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papal (adj.)

"of a pope, relating to a pope in his official capacity," late 14c., from Old French papal (late 14c.) and directly from Medieval Latin papalis "pertaining to the pope," from papa (see pope).

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papist (n.)

1530s, "adherent of the pope, one who acknowledges the supreme authority of the Church of Rome," from French papiste, from papa "pope," from Church Latin papa (see pope). Historically usually a term of anti-Catholic opprobrium. Related: Papism.

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antipope (n.)
also anti-pope, early 15c. (mid-13c. in Anglo-Latin), from Medieval Latin antipapa, from Greek anti "against, opposite, instead of" (see anti-) + papa (see pope). There have been about 30 of them, the last was Felix V, elected at Basel in 1439.
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papacy (n.)

late 14c., papacie, "the office or jurisdiction of a pope," from Medieval Latin papatia "papal office," from Late Latin papa "pope" (see pope). Old English had papdom in this sense. Meaning "the succession or line of popes; the system of ecclesiastical government based upon authority of the Bishop of Rome over the Church" is from 1540s.

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pontiff (n.)

c. 1600, "high priest," from French pontif (early 16c.), from Latin pontifex, title of a Roman high priest (see pontifex). Used for "bishop" in Church Latin, but not recorded in that sense in English until 1670s, specifically "the bishop of Rome," the pope. Pontifical, however, is used with reference to the pope from mid-15c.

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Gregorian (adj.)
"pertaining to Gregory," from Late Latin Gregorianus, from Gregorius (see Gregory). From c. 1600 of church music, in reference to Gregory I the Great (pope from 590-604), who traditionally codified it; 1640s in reference to new calendar (introduced 1582) from Pope Gregory XIII (1572-1585); due to Protestant resistance, the calendar was not introduced in England and the American colonies until 1752.
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