Etymology
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polite (adj.)

late 14c., "polished, burnished" (mid-13c. as a surname), from Latin politus "refined, elegant, accomplished," literally "polished," past participle of polire "to polish, to make smooth" (see polish (v.)).

The literal sense is obsolete in English; the sense of "elegant, cultured" (of literature, arts, etc.) is from c. 1500; of persons, "refined or cultivated in speech, manner, or behavior," by 1620s. The meaning "behaving courteously, showing consideration for others" is by 1748 (implied in politely). Related: Politeness.

Polite applies to one who shows a polished civility, who has a higher training in ease and gracefulness of manners: politeness is a deeper, more comprehensive, more delicate, and perhaps more genuine thing than civility. Polite, though much abused, is becoming the standard word for the bearing of a refined and kind person toward others. [Century Dictionary, 1895]
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politesse (n.)

"civility, politeness," 1717, from French politesse (17c.), from Italian politezza, properly "the quality of being polite," from polito "polite," from Latin politus (see polite). "In mod. usage generally with depreciatory connotation" [OED].

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impolite (adj.)
1610s, "unrefined, rough," from Latin impolitus "unpolished, rough, inelegant, unrefined," from assimilated form of in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + politus "polished" (see polite). Sense of "discourteous, uncivil, unpolished in manners" is from 1739. Related: Impolitely.
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polish (v.)

early 14c., polishen "make smooth or glossy" by friction or coating (of the surface of wood, stone, metal, etc.), from Old French poliss-, present participle stem of polir (12c.) "to polish, decorate, see to one's appearance," from Latin polire "to polish, make smooth; decorate, embellish;" figuratively "refine, improve," said by Watkins to be from PIE root *pel- (5) "to thrust, strike, drive," via the notion of fulling cloth, but there are other guesses.

The figurative sense of "free from coarseness, to refine" in English is recorded from mid-14c. Compare polite. Related: Polished; polishing. To polish off "finish" is by 1829 in pugilism slang, probably from the application of a coat of polish as the final step in a piece of work.

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thank you 
polite formula used in acknowledging a favor, c. 1400, short for I thank you (see thank). As a noun, from 1792.
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inurbane (adj.)
c. 1600, from Latin inurbanus "not civil or polite," from in- "not" (see in- (1) + urbanus "refined, courteous," literally "of a city" (see urban (adj.)). Related: Inurbanity.
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unpleasantness (n.)
1540s, "state or quality of being unpleasant," from unpleasant + -ness. By 1835 as "a slight quarrel, a minor misunderstanding." The late unpleasantness as a humorously polite Southern description of the American Civil War is attested from 1868.
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gallantry (n.)
1590s, "fine appearance," from French galanterie (16c.), from Old French galant "courteous; amusing" (see gallant (adj.)). Meaning "gallant behavior" is from 1630s; meaning "polite attention to ladies" is from 1670s. Middle English had gallantness "merriment, gaiety, high living" (late 15c.).
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unfortunate (adj.)
mid-15c., "unlucky," from un- (1) "not" + fortunate (adj.). Infortunate in same sense is older. In late 18c.-early 19c., unfortunate woman was a polite way to say "prostitute." The noun meaning "one who is not fortunate" is recorded from 1630s.
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dalliance (n.)

also daliance, mid-14c., daliaunce "edifying or spiritual conversation," from dally + -ance. Probably formed in Anglo-French but not attested there. From late 14c. as "polite conversation, chat, small talk; amorous talk, flirtation, coquetry;" meaning "idle or frivolous activity" is from 1540s.

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