Etymology
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cop out 

by 1942, noun ("a cowardly escape, an evasion") and verb ("sneak off, escape, give up without trying"), American English slang, perhaps from cop a plea (c. 1925) "plead guilty to lesser charges," which is probably from northern British slang cop "to catch" (a scolding, etc.); as in cop a feel "grope someone" (1930s); see cop (v.). Sense of "evade an issue or problem" is from 1960s.

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hang out (v.)
c. 1400, intransitive (as of the tongue, from the mouth); transitive use by 1560s; see hang (v.) + out (adv.). Colloquial meaning "to be found" is recorded from 1811, "in allusion to the custom of hanging out a sign or 'shingle' to indicate one's shop and business" [Century Dictionary]. As a noun (often hangout) "residence, lodging" attested from 1893; earlier "a feast" (1852, American English).
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go out (v.)
early 13c., "leave home," from go (v.) + out (adv.). Meaning "become extinct, expire" is from c. 1400.
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make out (v.)

c. 1600, "get along, succeed," from make (v.) + out (adv.). Sense of "obtain a clear understanding of" is from 1640s; that of "discern or discover visually" is by 1754; sense of "have sexual relations with" is attested by 1939.

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pass out (v.)

"lose consciousness," 1915, from pass (v.) + out. Probably a weakened sense from earlier meaning "to die" (1899). Meaning "to distribute" is attested from 1926. Related: Passed out.

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jeu d'esprit (n.)
"a witticism," 1712, from French, from jeu "play, game," from Latin jocum "jest, joke, play, sport" (see joke (n.)).
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lusus naturae (n.)
in natural history, "freak of nature," 1660s, a Latin phrase, from lusus "a play," from stem of ludere "to play" (see ludicrous) + genitive of natura (see nature (n.)). Originally of fossils, before there was a scientific basis for understanding their existence.
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dramatis personae 

"the characters in a play," Latin for "persons of a drama." From the genitive of Late Latin drama and the plural of persona.

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bitter end (n.)

In lexicons of sea language going back to 1759, the bitter end is the part of a cable which is round about the bitts (the two great timbers used to belay cables) when the ship is at anchor (see bitt).

Bitter end of the Cable, the End which is wound about the Bitts. ["The News-Readers Pocket-Book: Or, a Military Dictionary," London, 1759]

So, when a cable is played out to the bitter end, there is no more left to play. The term began to be used c. 1835 in non-nautical use and with probable influence of or merger with bitter (adj.).

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hors de combat (adv.)
1757, French, literally "out of combat." Hors (prep.) "out, beyond," is from Latin foris (adv.) "outside," literally "out of doors" (see foreign). De is from Latin de "of." For combat see combat (n.). A similar expression from French is hors concours "out of competition" (1884), of a work of art in an exhibition.
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