c. 1400, "spiced sauce served with meat or fowl" (early 14c. as a surname), probably from Middle Dutch pekel "pickle, brine," or related words in Low German and East Frisian (Dutch pekel, East Frisian päkel, German pökel), which are of uncertain origin or original meaning. Klein suggests the name of a medieval Dutch fisherman who developed the process.
The meaning "cucumber preserved in pickle" first recorded 1707, via use of the word for the salty liquid in which meat, etc. was preserved (c. 1500). Colloquial figurative sense of "a sorry plight, a state or condition of difficulty or disorder" is recorded by 1560s, from the time when the word still meant a sauce served on meat about to be eaten. Meaning "troublesome boy" is from 1788, perhaps from the notion of being "imbued" with roguery.
1550s, "preserved in a pickle sauce," past-participle adjective from pickle (v.). From 1690s as "roguish;" the slang figurative sense of "drunk" is attested by 1900, American English.
"to pickle (fish, meat) in a marinade," 1640s, from French mariner "to pickle in (sea) brine," from Old French marin (adj.) "of the sea," from Latin marinus "of the sea," from mare "sea, the sea, seawater," from PIE root *mori- "body of water." Related: Marinated; marinating.
"a pickle for fish or meat, generally of wine and vinegar with herbs and spices," 1704, from French marinade "spiced vinegar or brine for pickling," from mariner "to pickle in (sea) brine," from Old French marin (adj.) "of the sea," from Latin marinus "of the sea," from mare "sea, the sea, seawater," from PIE root *mori- "body of water." As a verb, "to steep in a marinade," from 1680s. Related: Marinaded; marinading.
1520s, "a sensation of taste, a flavor distinctive of anything," alteration of reles "scent, taste, aftertaste," (c. 1300), from Old French relais, reles, "something remaining, that which is left behind," from relaisser "to leave behind," from Latin relaxare "loosen, stretch out," from re- "back" (see re-) + laxare "loosen" (from PIE root *sleg- "be slack, be languid").
Especially "a pleasing taste," hence "pleasing quality" in general. The meaning "enjoyment of the taste or flavor of something" is attested from 1640s. The sense of "condiment, that which is used to impart a flavor to plain food to increase the pleasure of eating it" is recorded by 1797, especially a piquant sauce or pickle: The modern stuff you put on hot dogs (or don't) is a sweet green pickle relish.
"umbelliferous plant with yellow flowers, extensively cultivated for its aroma and oils," Middle English dille, from Old English dile "dill, anise," a Germanic word of unknown origin (cognates: Old Saxon dilli, Middle Dutch and Dutch dille, Swedish dill, German Dill). Dill-pickle is recorded from 1899.