Etymology
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physicist (n.)

"a student of physics," 1836, from physics + -ist. Coined by the Rev. William Whewell, English polymath, to denote a "cultivator of physics" as opposed to a physician.

As we cannot use physician for a cultivator of physics, I have called him a physicist. We need very much a name to describe a cultivator of science in general. I should incline to call him a Scientist. Thus we might say, that as an Artist is a Musician, Painter, or Poet, a Scientist is a Mathematician, Physicist, or Naturalist. [William Whewell, "The Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences," London, 1840]

It was used earlier in the sense of "one versed in the medical sciences" (1716) but this was rare and by 19c. was obsolete.

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astrophysicist (n.)
"expert in the physics of heavenly bodies," also astro-physicist, 1869, from astro- + physicist. Related: Astrophysics (1877); astrophysical.
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scientist (n.)

"person versed in or devoted to science," 1834, a hybrid coined from Latin scientia (see science) by the Rev. William Whewell, English polymath, by analogy with artist, in the same paragraph in which he coined physicist (q.v.). There is an isolated use of sciencist from 1778, and scientician was used in 1885. Scientaster "petty or inferior scientist" is by 1899 (see -aster).

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Venturi 
type of tube, 1887, in reference to Italian physicist G.B. Venturi (1746-1822).
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torr (n.)
unit of pressure, 1949, named for Italian physicist Evangelista Torricelli (1608-1647), inventor of the barometer.
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superconductor (n.)

1913, translation of Dutch suprageleider, coined by Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes. See super- + conductor.

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joule (n.)
unit of electrical energy, 1882, coined in recognition of British physicist James P. Joule (1818-1889). The surname is a variant of Joel. Related: Joulemeter.
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Kelvin 
unit of absolute temperature scale, 1911, in honor of British physicist Sir William Thompson, Lord Kelvin (1824-1907).
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Planck 

in physics, in reference to the work of German physicist Max Planck (1858-1947); such as Planck's constant, attested in English from 1901.

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boson (n.)

class of subatomic particles which obeys Bose-Einstein statistics, by 1956, named for Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose (1894-1974) + subatomic particle suffix -on.

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