Etymology
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physical (adj.)

early 15c., phisical, "medicinal" (opposed to surgical), from Medieval Latin physicalis "of nature, natural," from Latin physica "study of nature" (see physic).

The meaning "pertaining to matter, of or pertaining to what is perceived by the senses" is from 1590s; the meaning "having to do with the body, corporeal, pertaining to the material part or structure of an organized being" (as opposed to mental or moral) is attested from 1780. The sense of "characterized by bodily attributes or activities, being or inclined to be bodily aggressive or violent" is attested from 1970. Physical education is recorded by 1838; the abbreviated form phys ed is by 1955. Physical therapy is from 1922. Related: Physically.

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anthropology (n.)

"science of the natural history of man," 1590s, originally especially of the relation between physiology and psychology, from Modern Latin anthropologia or coined independently in English from anthropo- + -logy. In Aristotle, anthrōpologos is used literally, as "speaking of man." Related: Anthropologic; anthropological.

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physical (n.)

short for physical examination, by 1934, from physical (adj.).

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anthropological (adj.)

"pertaining to or relating to anthropology," 1786, from anthropology + -ical. Related: Anthropologically.

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anthropologist (n.)

"student or expert in anthropology," 1798, from anthropology + -ist. Attested from 1783 in German.

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-gamy 

word-forming element meaning "marriage" in anthropology and "fertilization" in biology, from Greek -gamia, from gamos "marriage" (see gamete).

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xanthous (adj.)

1829, "fair-haired and light-complexioned," from Greek xanthos "yellow," of unknown origin (see xantho-). But the word also was used in 19c. anthropology as "specifying the yellow or Mongoloid type of mankind" [Century Dictionary].

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demography (n.)

"that branch of anthropology which studies life-conditions of a people by its vital and social statistics," 1880, from Greek dēmos "people" (see demotic) + -graphy.

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physicality (n.)

1590s, "physical condition," from physical + -ity. By 1849 as "quality that pertains to sensations of the body." Physicalness is from 1727.

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Pilates 

c. 1980, physical fitness regimen developed c. 1920 by German-born physical fitness teacher Joseph Pilates (1883-1967).

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