Etymology
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Frobelian 
in reference to kindergarten, 1873 in English, from name of German philosopher and education reformer Friedrich Fröbel (1782-1852) + -ian.
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Maimonides 

Spanish-Hebrew theologian and philosopher (1135-1204) noted as a reformer of Judaic tradition. Related: Maimonidean.

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Swedenborgian 
1791, from name of Emanuel Svedberg, Swedish mystic and religious philosopher (1668-1772). His followers organized 1788 as The New Church.
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Lucretius 
Roman masc. proper name, originally the name of a Roman gens. The Epicurean philosopher-poet was Titus Lucretius Carus (c. 98-55 B.C.E.). Hence Lucretian (1712).
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Avicenna 
Latinization of name of Ibn Sina (980-1037), Persian philosopher and physician. Full name Abū 'Alī al-Husayn ibn 'Abd Allāh ibn Sīnā al-Balkhī.
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Hakeem 
also Hakim, masculine proper name, from Arabic hakim "wise," as a noun "physician; philosopher; governor," from stem of hakuma "he was wise;" whence also hakam "judge," hikmah "wisdom, science."
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Panglossian (adj.)

"optimistic" (usually ironic or disparaging), 1831, from French Panglosse, the name of the philosopher and tutor in Voltaire's "Candide" (1758), from pan- "all" (see pan-) + Greek glōssa, literally "tongue" (see gloss (n.2)).

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Socratic (adj.)
1630s (Socratical is from 1580s), "of or pertaining to Greek philosopher Socrates" (469-399 B.C.E.), especially in reference to his method of eliciting truth by question and answer, from Latin Socraticus, from Greek Sokratikos "pertaining to Socrates or his school." His name is Greek Sokrates, literally "having safe might."
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Cartesian (adj.)
pertaining to the works or ideas of French philosopher and mathematician René Descartes (1596-1650), 1650s, from Cartesius, the Latinized form of his surname (regarded as Des Cartes) + -ian. In addition to his philosophy (based on the fundamental principle cogito, ergo sum), he developed a system of coordinates for determining the positions of points on a plane.
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Seneca 

1610s, from Dutch Sennecas, collective name for the Iroquois tribes of what became upper New York, of uncertain origin, perhaps from a Mahican name for the Oneida or their village. Earlier sinnekens, senakees; the form of the English word probably was influenced by the name of the ancient Roman philosopher. The name sometimes was used by Americans for all the Iroquois.

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