Etymology
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philosopher (n.)

early 14c., philosophre, "scholar, learned person, wise person; one devoted to the search for universal truth, a student of metaphysical and moral sciences," replacing Old English philosophe, from Latin philosophus "philosopher," from Greek philosophos "philosopher, sage, one who speculates on the nature of things and truth," literally "lover of wisdom," from philos "loving" (see philo-) + sophos "wise; a sage" (see sophist). The form with -er is from an Anglo-French or Old French variant of philosophe with an agent-noun ending. Fem. forms were philosophress (1630s), philosophess (1660s).

Pythagoras was the first who called himself philosophos, instead of sophos, 'wise man,' since this latter term was suggestive of immodesty. [Klein]

Philosopher in the Middle Ages also could be "alchemist, magician, diviner," hence Philosophers' stone (late 14c., translating Medieval Latin lapis philosophorum, early 12c.), a reputed solid substance supposed by alchemists to change baser metals into gold or silver; also identified with the elixir and thus given the attribute of prolonging life indefinitely and curing wounds and disease. In French pierre philosophale, in German der Stein der Weisen.

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philosophe (n.)

also philosoph, "Enlightenment rationalist and skeptic," especially in reference to any of the French Encyclopædists, often disparaging or with contemptuous implication (when used by believers), 1774, from French philosophe, literally "philosopher" (Old French filosofe; see philosopher). Usually italicized in English, but nativized by Peter Gay ("The Enlightenment," 1966) and others. Also compare philosophist. It also was the older word for "philosopher" in English, from Old English to c. 1400.

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Hegelian (adj.)
1832, "pertaining to German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel" (1770-1831). As a noun from 1836.
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philosophist (n.)

"a would-be philosopher," a disparaging term for a rationalist or skeptic, a philosophe; 1798, from French philosophiste; see philosophy + -ist.

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Leibnitz 
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz (also Leibniz), 1646-1716, German philosopher and mathematician, independent inventor (Newton was the other) of differential and integral calculus.
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self-actualization (n.)

"realization or fulfillment of oneself," 1939, from self- + actualization. Popularized, though not coined, by U.S. psychologist and philosopher Abraham H. Maslow.

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Nietzschean (adj.)

1904, in reference to the ideas or followers of German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900). The surname is probably a diminutive of Nikolaus.

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Aristotelian (adj.)
also Aristotelean, c. 1600, of or pertaining to the person or teachings of Greek philosopher Aristotle (384-322 B.C.E.), the father of logic.
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performative 

"of or pertaining to performance," 1955, adjective and noun, coined by British philosopher of language J.L. Austin (1911-1960), from perform + -ive, perhaps on model of informative.

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deschooling (n.)

"act or process of removing the function of education from conventional schools to non-institutional systems of learning," 1970, coined by Austrian-born U.S. anarchist philosopher Ivan Illich (1926-2002), from de- + schooling.

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