in musical phrases, "recurring frequently, repeated," 1876, from Italian ostinato "obstinate, persistent," from Latin obstinatus "resolute, resolved, determined, inflexible, stubborn," past participle of obstinare "to persist" (see obstinate).
mid-14c. perseveraunt (implied in perseverantly) "constant, steadfast; persistent, unflagging," from Old French persévérant (12c.), present participle of persévérer (see persevere). Marked as obsolete in Century Dictionary (1895). Related: Perseverantly.
"having the qualities of a dog" (mostly in a negative sense, "mean, surly, contemptible"), c. 1300, from dog (n.). Meaning "persistent, silently obstinate" is from 1779. Hence doggedly (late 14c.), "cruelly, maliciously;" later "with a dog's persistence" (1773). Related: Doggedness.
"willful and persistent resistance to legitimate authority," c. 1200, from Old French contumace and directly from Latin contumacia "perseverance in one's purpose or opinions," generally in a bad sense, "arrogance, inflexibility, haughtiness, insolence," also especially "obstinate disobedience to a judicial order," abstract noun from stem of contumax (see contumely).