Etymology
Advertisement
per se 

"by himself, herself, or itself," 1570s, Latin, literally "by itself;" from per (see per) + se (see se-). The Latin phrase translates Greek kath auto (Aristotle).

Related entries & more 
Advertisement
per annum 

"in each year, annually," c. 1600, Latin, "by the year," from per (see per) + annum, accusative singular of annus "year" (see annual (adj.)).

Related entries & more 
per diem 

1510s, "by the day, in each day," Latin, "by the day," from per (see per) + diem, accusative singular of dies "day" (from PIE root *dyeu- "to shine"). As a noun from 1809, "amount or allowance of so much every day."

Related entries & more 
per capita 

1680s, Latin, "by the head, by heads," from per (see per) + capita "head" (see capital).

Related entries & more 
per stirpes 

1680s, Latin, "by families, by stocks;" in legal use, for inheritances, etc., opposed to per capita. See per- + stirpes.

[A]pplied to succession when divided so as to give the representatives belonging to one branch the share only that their head or ancestor would have taken had he survived. Thus, in a gift to A and the children of B, if they are to take per capita, each child will have a share equal to that of A; but if they are to take per stirpes, A will take one half and the other half will be divided among the children of B. [Century Dictionary]
Related entries & more 
Advertisement
par excellence 

French, from Latin per excellentiam "by the way of excellence." French par "by, through, by way of, by means of" is from Latin per (see per). For second element, see excellence.

Related entries & more 
laudator temporis acti 
Latin phrase used of one who looks to the past as better times, 1736, from Horace's laudator temporis acti se puero "a praiser of times past when he was a boy" [Ars Poetica, 173], from laudator, agent noun of laudare "to praise" (see laud).
Related entries & more 
head over heels (adv.)
1726, "a curious perversion" [Weekley] of Middle English heels over head (late 14c.) "somersault fashion," hence "recklessly." Head (n.) and heels long have been paired in alliterative phrases in English, and the whole image also was in classical Latin (per caput pedesque ire).
Related entries & more 
pret a porter (adj.)

denoting clothes sold in standard sizes, 1957, from French prêt à porter, "ready-to-wear." For pret, see presto. Porter is literally "to carry," from Latin portare "to carry" (from PIE root *per- (2) "to lead, pass over"). For a similar sense evolution, compare German kleider tragen.

Related entries & more 
leap year (n.)
"year containing 366 days," late 14c., lepe gere (not in Old English), from leap (v.) + year. Probably so called from its causing fixed festival days, which normally advance one weekday per year, to "leap" ahead one day in the week. Compare Medieval Latin saltus lunae (Old English monan hlyp) "omission of one day in the lunar calendar every 19 years."

Dutch schrikkeljaar "leap year" is from Middle Dutch schricken "leap forward," literally "be startled, be in fear." The 29th of February is schrikkeldag. Danish skudaar, Swedish skottår are literally "shoot-year;" German schaltjahr is from schalten "insert, intercalate." The Late Latin phrase was annus bissextilis, source of the Romanic words; compare bissextile.
Related entries & more