late 14c., "harm, damage, loss; a specific injury," from Anglo-French injurie "wrongful action" (Old French injure, 13c.), from Latin iniuria "wrong, an injustice, insult, unlawful violence, assault, damage, harm," noun use of fem. of iniurius "wrongful, unjust, unlawful," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + ius (genitive iuris) "right, law" (see jurist).
1630s, "touching the feelings intensely," figurative present-participle adjective from penetrate (v.). It was used earlier in a literal sense (early 15c.). The sense of "acute, discerning, quick to discover or recognize" is from 1670s. An earlier adjective was penetrative (late 14c., penetratif), in reference to medicines, from Medieval Latin penetrativus. Related: Penetratingly.
early 15c., penetracioun, "a puncture, a penetrating wound," from Latin penetrationem (nominative penetratio) "a penetrating or piercing," noun of action from past-participle stem of penetrare "to put or get into, enter into" (see penetrate). From c. 1600 as "insight, discernment, shrewdness;" the sexual sense is attested from 1610s; meaning "act of penetrating or piercing" is from 1620s; in optics, by 1799.
late 14c., "act of penetrating with a point;" c. 1400, "a perforation, a hole," verbal noun from pierce (v.).
mid-15c., "do an injustice to, dishonor," probably a back-formation from injury, or else from Old French injuriier "to damage; offend," from Latin iniuriari "do an injury," from iniuria. Injury itself also served as a verb meaning "to injure, hurt, harm" (late 15c.). Related: Injured; injuring.
c. 1200, "a wound, an injury;" also "sorrow, lovesickness," from hurt (v.). Old French had hurte (n.), but the sense "injury" is only in English.
early 15c., "complete" (implied in searchingly), present-participle adjective from search (v.). The sense of "engaged in seeking," hence also "keen, penetrating" (of gazes, etc.) is by 1570s.
"retaliation for wrongs real or fancied, act of doing harm or injury in return for wrong or injury suffered," 1540s, from French revenge, a back-formation from revengier (see revenge (v.)). Hence "vindictive feeling, desire to be revenged."