Etymology
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pelagic (adj.)

"pertaining to the open sea, marine, oceanic" (as opposed to coastal), 1650s, from Latin pelagicus, from Greek pelagikos, from pelagos "sea, high sea, open sea, main." Beekes rejects the traditional derivation from PIE root *plak- (1) "to spread out, be flat" as without evidence and concludes instead that "the word rather seems to be Pre-Greek." In later use especially "living at or near the surface of the open ocean."

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plage (n.)

"a region, district, land, country," late 14c., from Old French plage (13c.) and directly from Late Latin plagia "a plain, shore," noun use of adjective (plagia regio), from plaga "a region, stretch of country" (see pelagic). From early 15c. as "one of the four cardinal directions of the compass." Astronomical use in reference to a region of the sun's chromosphere is from 1949.

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Pelasgian 

late 15c., "of or pertaining to the Pelasgi," from Latin Pelasgius, from Greek Pelasgios "of the Pelasgi," from Pelasgoi "the Pelasgi," name of a prehistoric people of Greece and Asia Minor who occupied Greece and the Aegean islands before the Hellenes, probably originally *Pelag-skoi, literally "Sea-people" (see pelagic). Also Pelasgic.

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Pelagian (n.)

mid-15c., Pelagien, "adherent of the teaching of the heretic Pelagius;" also as an adjective; from Medieval Latin Pelagianus, from Pelagius, Latinized form of the name of the 4c. British monk who denied the doctrine of original sin. Combated by Augustine, condemned by Pope Zosimus in 418 C.E. His name in Welsh was said to have been Morgan, literally "sea-dweller" (hence his Church name, from Greek pelagos "sea;" see pelagic). Related: Pelagianism.

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archipelago (n.)
c. 1500, from Italian arcipelago "the Aegean Sea" (13c.), from arci- "chief, principal," from Latin archi- (see arch-) + pelago "pool; gulf, abyss," from Medieval Latin pelagus "pool; gulf, abyss, sea," from Greek pelagos "sea, high sea, open sea, main" (see pelagic).

The elements of the word are Greek, but there is no record of arkhipelagos in ancient or Medieval Greek (the modern word in Greek is borrowed from Italian), so the word perhaps is an Italian compound or an alteration in Italian of Medieval Latin Egeopelagus, from Greek Aigaion pelagos "Aegean Sea." The Aegean being full of island chains, the meaning was extended in Italian to "any sea studded with islands" (a sense attested in English from c. 1600) and to the islands themselves. Related: Archipelagian; archipelagic.
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