Etymology
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pedagogue (n.)

late 14c., pedagoge, "schoolmaster, teacher of children," from Old French pedagoge "teacher of children" (14c.), from Latin paedagogus, from Greek paidagōgos "slave who escorts boys to school and generally supervises them," later "a teacher or trainer of boys," from pais (genitive paidos) "child" (see pedo-) + agōgos "leader," from agein "to lead" (from PIE root *ag- "to drive, draw out or forth, move").

"[N]ow used, generally with a sense of contempt, for a dogmatic and narrow-minded teacher" [Century Dictionary, 1895]; the hostile implications in the word are from at least the time of Pepys (1650s). Related: Pedagogal.

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pedagogy (n.)

"the science of teaching," 1580s, from French pédagogie (16c.), from Latin paedagogia, from Greek paidagōgia "education, attendance on boys," from paidagōgos "teacher" (see pedagogue).

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pedant (n.)

1580s, "schoolmaster," from French pédant (1560s) or directly from Italian pedante, literally "teacher, schoolmaster," a word of uncertain origin, apparently an alteration of Late Latin paedagogantem (nominative paedagogans), present participle of paedagogare (see pedagogue). Meaning "person who trumpets minor points of learning, one who overrates learning or lays undue stress on exact knowledge of details or trifles as compared with large matters or general principles" is recorded by 1590s.

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pedagogic (adj.)

"of or pertaining to a teacher of children," 1781, from Latin paedagogicus, from Greek paidagōgikos "suitable for a teacher," from paidagōgos "teacher of children" (see pedagogue). Earlier (1755) in reference to the points used in printing Hebrew and Greek letters.

Lastly, we observe, that Hebrew being a Sacred language, is chiefly studied by Divines, who often make use of Points in Theological writings; tho' plain Hebrew as well as Greek, are understood and very frequently printed without Points or Accents. But that the use of such Pedagogic Symbols will one time cease, is the hope of all that delight in beholding neat Letter disrobed of all intruders upon its native beauty. [John Smith, "The Printer's Grammar," London, 1755]
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*pau- (1)

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "few, little."

It forms all or part of: catchpoll; encyclopedia; filly; foal; few; hypnopedia; impoverish; orthopedic; Paedophryne; paraffin; parvi-; parvovirus; paucity; Paul; pauper; pedagogue; pederasty; pedo-; pedophilia; poco; poltroon; pony; pool (n.2) "game similar to billiards;" poor; poulterer; poultry; poverty; puericulture; puerile; puerility; puerperal; pullet; pullulate; Punch; Punchinello; pupa; pupil (n.1) "student;" pupil (n.2) "center of the eye;" puppet; pusillanimous; putti.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit potah "a young animal," putrah "son;" Avestan puthra- "son, child;" Greek pauros "few, little," pais (genitive paidos) "child," pōlos "foal;" Latin paucus "few, little," paullus "little," parvus "little, small," pauper "poor," puer "child, boy," pullus "young animal;" Oscan puklu "child;" Old English feawe "not many, a small number," fola "young horse;" Old Norse fylja "young female horse;" Old Church Slavonic puta "bird;" Lithuanian putytis "young animal, young bird;" Albanian pele "mare."

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*ag- 

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to drive, draw out or forth, move."

It forms all or part of: act; action; active; actor; actual; actuary; actuate; agency; agenda; agent; agile; agitation; agony; ambagious; ambassador; ambiguous; anagogical; antagonize; apagoge; assay; Auriga; auto-da-fe; axiom; cache; castigate; coagulate; cogent; cogitation; counteract; demagogue; embassy; epact; essay; exact; exacta; examine; exigency; exiguous; fumigation; glucagon; hypnagogic; interact; intransigent; isagoge; litigate; litigation; mitigate; mystagogue; navigate; objurgate; pedagogue; plutogogue; prodigal; protagonist; purge; react; redact; retroactive; squat; strategy; synagogue; transact; transaction; variegate.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek agein "to lead, guide, drive, carry off," agon "assembly, contest in the games," agōgos "leader," axios "worth, worthy, weighing as much;" Sanskrit ajati "drives," ajirah "moving, active;" Latin actus "a doing; a driving, impulse, a setting in motion; a part in a play;" agere "to set in motion, drive, drive forward," hence "to do, perform," agilis "nimble, quick;" Old Norse aka "to drive;" Middle Irish ag "battle."

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