Etymology
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residence (n.)

late 14c., "act of dwelling in a place; one's dwelling place," from Old French residence, from Medieval Latin residentia (source also of Spanish residencia, Italian residenza), from Latin residentem (nominative residens) "residing, dwelling," present participle of residere "to settle, linger, sit down" (see reside).

Meaning "fact of having one's usual abode in a particular place" is from late 15c. The sense of "a staying in some place for the discharge of special duties or one's occupation" is also from late 14c., originally ecclesiastical, extended 19c. to professors, artists, poets, etc. The expression _____-in-residence is attested by 1954. Also borrowed into German (Residenz), Dutch (residentie).

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patrilocal (adj.)

1906, in reference to the customs of certain social groups where a married couple settles in the husband's house or community, from patri- + local (adj.).

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non-residence (n.)

also nonresidence, "fact of not residing within a particular jurisdiction," late 14c., originally with reference to clergy living away from their pastorate or charge, from non- + residence. Related: Non-residency.

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domicile (n.)

mid-15c., "place of residence of a person or family," from Old French domicile (14c.) and directly from Latin domicilium, perhaps from domus "house" (from PIE root *dem- "house, household") + colere "to dwell" (see colony). In law, specifically, "that residence from which there is no intention to remove, or a general intention to return" (mid-18c.).

As a verb, "to establish in a fixed residence," it is attested by 1762 (implied in domiciled). Related: Domiciliary.

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residency (n.)

1570s, "residence;" see resident + abstract noun suffix -cy. Hospital sense is from 1924.

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uxorious (adj.)

"excessively fond of or submissive to one's wife," 1590s, from Latin uxorius "of or pertaining to a wife," also "devoted to a wife" or "ruled by a wife," from uxor (genitive uxoris) "wife," according to Watkins from PIE *uk-sor- "'she who gets accustomed" (to a new household)' after patrilocal marriage."

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lodging (n.)

early 14c., "encampment;" late 14c., "temporary accommodation; place of residence," verbal noun from lodge (v.). Related: Lodgings.

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hotel (n.)

1640s, "public official residence; large private residence," from French hôtel "a mansion, palace, large house," from Old French ostel, hostel "a lodging" (see hostel). Modern sense of "an inn of the better sort" is first recorded 1765. The same word as hospital.

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headquarters (n.)

"residence of a military commander," 1640s, from head (adj.) + quarters. Headquarter as a verb is recorded from 1838 (in Headquartered).

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vicarage (n.)

early 15c., "benefice of a vicar," from vicar + -age. Meaning "house or residence of a vicar" is from 1520s.

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