c. 1300, "genealogical extraction from an original or progenitor," from Old French descente "descent, descendance, lineage," formed from descendre "to come down" (see descend) on analogy of French nouns such as attente from attendre "to expect," vente "sale" from vendre "to sell," pente "slope" from pendre "to hang" (the etymological English word from Latin would be *descence).
Meanings "action of descending" (on); "act of passing from a higher to a lower place" in any way are from late 14c.; that of "a downward slope" is from 1590s. From c. 1600 as "a sudden invasion or attack." Biological sense "evolution" is from 1859 in Darwin, though there are uses which suggest essentially the same thing going back to 1630s.
late 17c., from Middle English linage "line of descent; an ancestor" (c. 1300), from Old French lignage "descent, extraction, race" (11c.), from ligne "line," from Latin linea "line of descent," literally "string, line, thread" (see line (n.)). The word altered in spelling and pronunciation in early Modern English, apparently by some combined influence of line (n.) and lineal.
early 14c., "line of descent, pedigree, descent," from Old French genealogie (12c.), from Late Latin genealogia "tracing of a family," from Greek genealogia "the making of a pedigree," from genea "generation, descent" (from PIE root *gene- "give birth, beget," with derivatives referring to procreation and familial and tribal groups) + -logia (see -logy). An Old English word for it was folctalu, literally "folk tale." Meaning "study of family trees" is from 1768.
mid-15c., "consent;" 1630s, "condescension," from condescend on model of descent/descend.
"a man" (especially one of Spanish descent), 1846, from Spanish, from Latin hominem, accusative of homo "man" (see homunculus).
1822, "South African native of Dutch descent," from Dutch Afrikaner "African," with unetymological -d- on analogy of Hollander, Englander, etc. (Afrikaner is attested from 1824).
late 15c., "parental conduct, parental relationship exhibited in the recognition and care of children," from Old French parentage (12c.), from parent (see parent (n.)). Meaning "descent or derivation from parents, lineage" is from 1560s; figurative use from 1580s. An earlier word was parage "descent, lineage; family," late 13c., from Old French.
c. 1610, "action of rising, upward movement," from ascend on model of descend/descent. The meaning "act of climbing" is from 1753.
Jewish surname indicating priestly descent, from Hebrew kohen "priest," from base of kihen "he acted as priest," related to Arabic kahana "he divined, prophesied."