Etymology
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paterfamilias (n.)

"male head of a family or household," late 15c., from Latin pater familias "master of a house, head of a family," from pater "father" (see father (n.)) + familias, old genitive of familia "family" (see family).

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paternoster (n.)

"the Lord's Prayer," Old English Pater Noster, from Latin pater noster "our father," the first words of the Lord's Prayer in Latin. Meaning "set of rosary beads" is by mid-13c. (originally it was the name of one of the larger beads). Paternoster Row, near St. Paul's in London (similarly named streets are found in other cathedral cities), reflects the once-important industry of rosary bead-making.

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paternal (adj.)

early 15c., "of or pertaining to a father," from Old French paternal "of a father" (12c.), from Medieval Latin paternalis, from Latin paternus "of a father, fatherly," from pater (see father (n.)). By c. 1600 as "proper to or characteristic of a father; from 1610s as "inherited from a father."

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paternity (n.)

mid-15c., paternite, "condition of being a father, relation of a father to a child or of God to mankind," from Old French paternité (12c.), from Late Latin paternitatem (nominative paternitas) "fatherly care, fatherhood," from Latin paternus "of a father," from pater (see father (n.)). Meaning "paternal origin, derivation from a father" is from 1868.

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sympatric (adj.)
1904, from assimilated form of syn- + Greek patra "fatherland," from pater "father" (see father (n.)) + -ic. Opposite of allopatric.
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patri- 

word-forming element used in terms describing kinship of the father or the paternal line, from Latin patri-, combining form of pater (see father (n.)).

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pere 

title affixed to the name of a French priest, 1610s, from French père "father," from Latin patrem (nominative pater); see father (n.). Attached to a name, to distinguish a father from a son of the same name (e.g. Dumas père), from 1802.

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compadre (n.)

"companion," 1834, American English, from Spanish compadre "godfather," hence "benefactor, friend," from Medieval Latin compater, from com "with, together" (see com-) + pater "father" (see father (n.). Compare compere, compeer, also gossip (n.).

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patronymic (n.)

"a name derived from that of parents or ancestors," 1610s, from Late Latin patronymicum, from neuter of patronymicus (adj.) "derived from a father's name," from Greek patrōnymos "named from the father," from patēr (genitive patros) "father" (see father (n.)) + onyma "name," Aeolic dialectal variant of onoma "name" (from PIE root *no-men- "name"). As an adjective, "derived from the name of a father or ancestor," from 1660s. Related: Patronymically.

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patter (v.2)

"talk glibly or rapidly, chatter," mid-15c., from Middle English pateren "mumble prayers rapidly" (late 14c.), a shortened form of paternoster in allusion to the low, indistinct repetition of the prayer in churches. Perhaps influenced by patter (v.1). The related noun is first recorded 1758, originally "cant language of thieves and beggars," later "glib or fluent talk of a stage comedian, salesman, etc."  Compare piter-pater "a babbled prayer" (mid-15c.), also Devil's paternoster (1520s) "a grumbling and mumbling to oneself." A pattercove in 16c. canting slang was a strolling priest.

PATTERING. The maundering or pert replies of servants; also talk or palaver in order to amuse one intended to be cheated. [Grose, "Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue," 2nd edition. 1788]
[T]he Pater-noster, up to the time of the Reformation, was recited by the priest in a low voice as far as 'and lead us not into temptation' when the choir joined in. [John S. Farmer, "Musa Pedestris," 1896]
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