c. 1200, "the sufferings of Christ on the Cross; the death of Christ," from Old French passion "Christ's passion, physical suffering" (10c.), from Late Latin passionem (nominative passio) "suffering, enduring," from past-participle stem of Latin pati "to endure, undergo, experience," a word of uncertain origin. The notion is "that which must be endured."
The sense was extended to the sufferings of martyrs, and suffering and pain generally, by early 13c. It replaced Old English þolung (used in glosses to render Latin passio), literally "suffering," from þolian (v.) "to endure." In Middle English also sometimes "the state of being affected or acted upon by something external" (late 14c., compare passive).
In Middle English also "an ailment, disease, affliction;" also "an emotion, desire, inclination, feeling; desire to sin considered as an affliction" (mid-13c.). The specific meaning "intense or vehement emotion or desire" is attested from late 14c., from Late Latin use of passio to render Greek pathos "suffering," also "feeling, emotion." The specific sense of "sexual love" is attested by 1580s, but the word has been used of any lasting, controlling emotion (zeal; grief, sorrow; rage, anger; hope, joy). The meaning "strong liking, enthusiasm, predilection" is from 1630s; that of "object of great admiration or desire" is by 1732.
As compared with affection, the distinctive mark of passion is that it masters the mind, so that the person becomes seemingly its subject or its passive instrument, while an affection, though moving, affecting, or influencing one, still leaves him his self-control. The secondary meanings of the two words keep this difference. [Century Dictionary]
A passion-play (1843, in a German context) represents the scenes in the Passion of Christ. The passion-flower was so called from the 1630s.
The name passionflower — flos passionis — arose from the supposed resemblance of the corona to the crown of thorns, and of the other parts of the flower to the nails, or wounds, while the five sepals and five petals were taken to symbolize the ten apostles — Peter ... and Judas ... being left out of the reckoning. [Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1885]
"the head; the face; the brains," 1610s, now obsolete or dialectal, of uncertain origin. In 20c. a similar word was used as a colloquial shortening of passion.
1590s, "inflame with passion," from Italian impassionare "to fill with passion," from assimilated form of in- "in, into" (from PIE root *en "in") + passione "passion," from Latin passionem (see passion). Related: Impassioned; impassionable. Formerly also empassion.
early 15c., "angry; emotional, subject to emotions, exhibiting or expressing passion in any sense," from Medieval Latin passionatus "affected with passion," from Latin passio (genitive passionis) "suffering, enduring" (see passion). Specific sense of "amorous" is attested from 1580s. Related: Passionately; passionateness. Middle English had also passional "pertaining to the feelings" (mid-15c., from Medieval Latin passionalis).
late 14c., "capable of feeling or suffering; susceptible of impressions from external agents, capable of being changed," from Old French passible and directly from Late Latin passibilis "capable of feeling or suffering" (see passion). Related: Passibility (mid-14c., passabilite, "capacity for being acted upon or suffering").
"incapable of feeling pain, exempt from suffering," mid-14c., from Old French impassible (13c.) or directly from Church Latin impassibilis "incapable of passion," from assimilated form of in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + passibilis "capable of passion, feeling, or suffering, from passio "suffering" (see passion). Meaning "emotionless" is from 1590s. Related: Impassibility.
"feeling of sorrow or deep tenderness for one who is suffering or experiencing misfortune," mid-14c., compassioun, literally "a suffering with another," from Old French compassion "sympathy, pity" (12c.), from Late Latin compassionem (nominative compassio) "sympathy," noun of state from past participle stem of compati "to feel pity," from com "with, together" (see com-) + pati "to suffer" (see passion).
Latin compassio is an ecclesiastical loan-translation of Greek sympatheia (see sympathy). Sometimes in Middle English it meant a literal sharing of affliction or suffering with another. An Old English loan-translation of compassion was efenðrowung.
late 14c., passif, of matter, "capable of being acted upon;" of persons, "receptive;" also in the grammatical sense "expressive of being affected by some action" (opposed to active), from Old French passif "suffering, undergoing hardship" (14c.) and directly from Latin passivus "capable of feeling or suffering," from pass-, past-participle stem of pati "to suffer" (see passion).
The meaning "not active or acting" is recorded from late 15c.; the sense of "unresisting, not opposing, enduring suffering without resistance" is from 1620s. Related: Passively. As a noun, late 14c. as "a capacity in matter for being acted upon;" also in grammar, "a passive verb."
Passive resistance is attested in 1819 in Scott's "Ivanhoe" and was used throughout 19c.; it was re-coined by Gandhi c. 1906 in South Africa. Passive-aggressive with reference to behavior or personality characterized by indirect resistance but avoidance of direct confrontation is attested by 1971.
"rage, madness, angry mania," late 15c., furour, from Old French fureur (12c.), from Latin furor "a ravaging, rage, madness, passion," which is related to furia "rage, passion, fury" (see fury).
"free from passion, dispassionate," 1620s, from in- (1) "not" + passionate. Related: Impassionately. From 1590s as "strongly affected, stirred by passion," from Italian impassionato, past participle of impassionare (see impassion).