Etymology
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parent (v.)

1660s, transitive, "be or act as a parent to," from parent (n.). Intransitive sense of "be a parent" is by 1959. Related: Parented; parenting.

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parent (n.)

early 15c. (late 12c. as a surname), "a mother or father; a forebear, ancestor," from Old French parent "father, parent, relative, kin" (11c.) and directly from Latin parentem (nominative parens) "father or mother, ancestor," noun use of present participle of parire "bring forth, give birth to, produce," from PIE root *pere- (1) "to produce, bring forth." Began to replace native elder after c. 1500.

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parentcraft (n.)

"skill and knowledge in the rearing of children," by 1930, from parent + craft.

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parenthood (n.)

"state of being a parent; position of a parent," 1856, from parent (n.) + -hood.

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grandparent (n.)
1802, from grand- + parent (n.). Related: Grandparents; grandparental.
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godparent (n.)
also God-parent, 1865; see God + parent (n.).
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parentless (adj.)

"without parents, lacking parents," 1560s, from parent (n.) + -less. Related: Parentlessness.

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parenting (n.)

"supervision by parents of their children," 1959, verbal noun from parent (v.). An earlier term was parentcraft (1930); also see parentage.

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parental (adj.)

"of or pertaining to a parent or parents; proper to or characteristic of parents," 1620s, from Latin parentalis "of parents," from parens "father or mother" (see parent (n.)). Related: Parentally.

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in loco parentis 
legal Latin, 1640s in English, literally "in the place of a parent," from loco, ablative of locus "a place" (see locus (n.)) + parentis, genitive of parens "parent" (see parent (n.)).
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