Etymology
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-i (2)
plural suffix sometimes preserved in English for words from Latin, it is the Latin plural of nouns of the second declension (such as focus/foci, radius/radii).
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-i (1)
as a termination in certain people names (Iraqi, Israeli), it represents the common Semitic national designation suffix -i.
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-ial 
adjectival word-forming element, variant of -al (1) with connective -i-. From Latin -ialis, in which the -i- originally was from the stem of the word being attached but later came to be felt as connective.
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-ify 
variant of verbal suffix -fy with connective -i-. Related: -ific; -ification.
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-ian 
variant of suffix -an (q.v.), with connective -i-. From Latin -ianus, in which the -i- originally was from the stem of the word being attached but later came to be felt as connective. In Middle English frequently it was -ien, via French.
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-ast 
agential suffix, from French -ast, from Latin -asta, from Greek -astes, the form of -istes (see -ist) used after -i-.
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-form 
word-forming element meaning "-like, -shaped, in the form of," from French -forme and directly from Latin -formis "-like, shaped," from forma "form" (see form (n.)). Properly preceded by an -i-.
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-iasis 
medical Latin word-forming element used in naming diseases, from Greek -asis, abstract noun suffix (often expressing "disease, morbid condition") from the aorist of verbs in -aein. The -i- is connective.
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-ment 

common suffix of Latin origin forming nouns, originally from French and representing Latin -mentum, which was added to verb stems to make nouns indicating the result or product of the action of the verb or the means or instrument of the action. In Vulgar Latin and Old French it came to be used as a formative in nouns of action. French inserts an -e- between the verbal root and the suffix (as in commenc-e-ment from commenc-er; with verbs in ir, -i- is inserted instead (as in sent-i-ment from sentir).

Used with English verb stems from 16c. (for example amazement, betterment, merriment, the last of which also illustrates the habit of turning -y to -i- before this suffix).

The stems to which -ment is normally appended are those of verbs; freaks like oddment & funniment should not be made a precedent of; they are themselves due to misconception of merriment, which is not from the adjective, but from an obsolete verb merry to rejoice. [Fowler]
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-phemia 

word-forming element meaning "speech," from Greek -phemia, from phēmē "speech," from stem of phemi "I speak," cognate with Latin fari "to speak," fama "report, reputation" (from PIE root *bha- (2) "to speak, tell, say").

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