Etymology
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pale (adj.)

early 14c., of human skin or complexion, "of a whitish appearance, bloodless, pallid," from Old French paile "pale, light-colored" (12c., Modern French pâle), from Latin pallidus "pale, pallid, wan, colorless," from pallere "be pale, grow pale," from PIE root *pel- (1) "pale." Pallid is a doublet.

From mid-14c. of colors, "lacking chromatic intensity, approaching white;" from late-14c. of non-human objects or substances (liquors, etc.). Figurative use also is from late 14c. Related: Palely; palish; paleness. Paleface, supposed translating a typical North American Indian word for "European," is attested from 1822 in American English.

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pale (n.)

early 13c. (c. 1200 in Anglo-Latin), "stake, pole, stake for vines," from Old French pal and directly from Latin palus "stake, prop, wooden post" (source also of Spanish and Italian palo), which is from PIE *pakslo-, suffixed form of root *pag- "to fasten." A doublet of pole (n.1).

From late 14c. as "fence of pointed stakes." Paler as a surname meaning "fence-builder" is recorded from late 12c. Another Middle English form of the word in the "fence, paling, wall of an enclosure" sense, based on the plural, was pales, palis (late 14c.), and the surname Paliser is attested from early 14c.

 The figurative sense of "limit, boundary, restriction" is from c. 1400, and survives (barely) in beyond the pale and similar phrases. Meaning "the part of Ireland under English rule" is by 1540s (the thing itself dates to the conquests of Henry II), via the notion of "enclosed space," hence "district or region within determined bounds," hence "territory held by power of a nation or people" (mid-15c.).

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pale (v.)

late 14c., "become pale; appear pale," also "to make pale;" from Old French paleir (12c.) or from pale (adj.). Related: Paled; paling.

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paling (n.)

"fence formed by connecting pointed vertical stakes by horizontal rails above and below," 1550s, from pale (n.).

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pallid (adj.)

"lacking color, pale, wan," 1580s, from Latin pallidus "pale, colorless," from root of pallere "be pale" (from PIE root *pel- (1) "pale"). A doublet of pale (adj.), and compare pallor. Related: Pallidly; pallidness.

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palisade (n.)

c. 1600, "a fence of strong stakes," from French palissade (15c.), from Provençal palissada, from palissa "a stake or paling," from Gallo-Roman *palicea, from Latin palus "stake" (from PIE *pakslo-, suffixed form of root *pag- "to fasten"). Earlier in Italian form palisado (1580s). Compare pale (n.). Palisades in the military sense of "close rows of strong pointed wooden stakes fixed in the ground as a defensive fortification" is attested from 1690s. The Palisades for the trap-rock precipices along the Hudson River opposite New York City is by 1823.

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*pel- (1)

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "pale."

It forms all or part of: appall; falcon; fallow (adj.) "pale yellow, brownish yellow;" Fauvist; Lloyd; pale (adj.); pallid; pallor; palomino; Peloponnesus; polio; poliomyelitis.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit palitah "gray," panduh "whitish, pale;" Greek pelios "livid, dark;" polios "gray" (of hair, wolves, waves); Latin pallere "to be pale," pallidus "pale, pallid, wan, colorless;" Old Church Slavonic plavu, Lithuanian palvas "sallow;" Welsh llwyd "gray;" Old English fealo, fealu "dull-colored, yellow, brown." It also forms the root of words for "pigeon" in Greek (peleia), Latin (palumbes), and Old Prussian (poalis).

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palace (n.)

early 13c., palais, "official residence of an emperor, king, queen, archbishop, etc.," from Old French palais "palace, court" and directly from Medieval Latin palacium "a palace" (source of Spanish palacio, Italian palazzo), from Latin palatium "the Palatine hill," in plural, "a palace," from Mons Palatinus "the Palatine Hill," one of the seven hills of ancient Rome, where Augustus Caesar's house stood (the original "palace"), later the site of the splendid residence built by Nero. In English, the general sense of "magnificent, stately, or splendid dwelling place" is by c. 1300.

The hill name perhaps is ultimately from palus "stake" (see pale (n.)) on the notion of "enclosure." Another guess is that it is from Etruscan and connected with Pales, the supposed name of an Italic goddess of shepherds and cattle. De Vaan connects it with palatum "roof of the mouth; dome, vault," and writes, "Since the 'palate' can be referred to as a 'flattened' or 'vaulted' part, and since hills are also often referred to as 'flat' or 'vaulted' (if their form so suggests), a derivation of Palatium from palatum is quite conceivable."

French palais is the source of German Palast, Swedish palats and some other Germanic forms. Others, such as Old English palant, Middle High German phalanze (modern German Pfalz) are from the Medieval Latin word. 

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*pag- 
also *pak-, Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to fasten."

It forms all or part of: Areopagus; appease; appeasement; compact (adj.) "concentrated;" compact (n.1) "agreement;" fang; impact; impale; impinge; newfangled; pace (prep.) "with the leave of;" pacific; pacify; pact; pagan; page (n.1) "sheet of paper;" pageant; pale (n.) "limit, boundary, restriction;" palette; palisade; patio; pawl; pax; pay; peace; peasant; pectin; peel (n.2) "shovel-shaped instrument;" pole (n.1) "stake;" propagate; propagation; travail; travel.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit pasa- "cord, rope," pajra- "solid, firm;" Avestan pas- "to fetter;" Greek pegnynai "to fix, make firm, fast or solid," pagos "pinnacle, cliff, rocky hill;" Latin pangere "to fix, to fasten," pagina "column," pagus "district;" Slavonic paž "wooden partition;" Old English fegan "to join," fon "to catch seize."
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appall (v.)

also appal, early 14c., "to fade;" c. 1400, "to grow pale," from Old French apalir "become or make pale," from a- "to" (see ad-) + palir "grow pale," from Latin pallere "to be pale" (from PIE root *pel- (1) "pale"). Transitive meaning "cause dismay or shock," is 1530s. Related: Appalled; appalling.

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