Etymology
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palate (n.)

late 14c., "roof of the mouth of a human or animal; the parts which separate the oral from the nasal cavity," from Old French palat and directly from Latin palatum "roof of the mouth," also "a vault," which is perhaps of Etruscan origin [Klein], but de Vaan suggests an IE root meaning "flat, broad, wide." It was popularly considered to be the seat of the sense of taste, hence transferred meaning "sense of taste" (late 14c.), which also was in classical Latin.

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palatable (adj.)

1660s, "good-tasting, agreeable to the taste," from palate + -able. Figurative sense of "agreeable to the mind or feelings" is from 1680s. Related: Palatably; palatability.

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palatal (adj.)

1728, of sounds, "uttered by the aid of the palate," from palate + -al (1). By 1786 as "of or pertaining to the roof of the mouth." As a noun, "a sound or letter usually produced by the upper surface of the tongue against a part of the palate," by 1762.

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toothsome (adj.)
"pleasant to the taste," 1560s, from -some (1) + tooth in a figurative sense of "appetite, taste, liking" attested from late 14c. (compare sweet tooth, also figurative use of palate). The extended sense of "attractive" (1550s) is attested earlier. Related: Toothsomely; toothsomeness.
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gum (n.2)

"soft tissues of the mouth," Old English goma "palate, side of the mouth" (single or plural), from a Germanic source represented by Old Norse gomi "palate," Old High German goumo; related to Lithuanian gomurys "palate," and perhaps from PIE root *ghieh- "to yawn, gape, be wide open."

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cleft (adj.)

"split, cloven," late 14c., past-participle adjective from cleave (v.1)). Cleft palate attested from 1828.

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delicacies (n.)

"things dainty and gratifying to the palate," early 15c., plural of delicacy in the "fine food" sense.

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velum (n.)
"the soft palate," 1771, from Latin velum "a sail, awning, curtain, covering" (see veil (n.)).
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daintily (adv.)

c. 1300, deinteli, "sumptuously, with delicate attention to the palate;" late 14c., "elegantly, in a dainty manner," from dainty (adj.) + -ly (2).

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nasopharynx (n.)

"part of the pharynx which is behind and above the soft palate, continuous with the nasal passages," 1873, from naso-, combining form of Latin nasus "nose" (from PIE root *nas- "nose") + pharynx. Related: Nasopharyngeal (1860); nasopharyngitis (1879).

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