Etymology
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paleo- 

before vowels pale- word-forming element used in scientific combinations (mostly since c. 1870) meaning "ancient, early, prehistoric, primitive, fossil," from Latinized form of Greek palaios "old, ancient," from palai "long ago, far back" (from PIE root *kwel- (2) "far" in space or time).

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pan- 

word-forming element meaning "all, every, whole, all-inclusive," from Greek pan-, combining form of pas (neuter pan, masculine and neuter genitive pantos) "all," from PIE *pant- "all" (with derivatives found only in Greek and Tocharian).

Commonly used as a prefix in Greek (before a labial pam-; before a guttural pag-), in modern times often with nationality names, the first example of which seems to have been Panslavism (1846). Also panislamic (1881), pan-American (1889), pan-German (1892), pan-African (1900), pan-European (1901), pan-Arabism (1930).

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para- (2)

word-forming element of Latin origin meaning "defense, protection against; that which protects from," from Italian para, imperative of parare "to ward off," from Latin parare "make ready" (from PIE root *pere- (1) "to produce, procure"). It figures in parachute, parasol, parapet, etc.

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para- (1)

before vowels, par-, word-forming element, originally in Greek-derived words, meaning "alongside, beyond; altered; contrary; irregular, abnormal," from Greek para- from para (prep.) "beside, near; issuing from; against, contrary to," from PIE *prea, from root *per- (1) "forward," hence "toward, near; against." Cognate with Old English for- "off, away." Mostly used in scientific and technical words; not usually regarded as a naturalized formative element in English.

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parti- 

"in two ways," a modern word-forming element extracted late 16c. from parti-colored (q.v.). In that word it represents Middle English partie "of two different colors; different," from Old French partie.

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pedo- 

before vowels ped-, word-forming element meaning "boy, child," from Greek pedo-, combining form of pais "boy, child," especially a son, from PIE root *pau- (1) "few, little." The British form paed- is better because it avoids confusion with the ped- that means "foot" (from PIE root *ped-) and the ped-that means "soil, ground, earth." Compare, from the same root, Sanskrit putrah "son;" Avestan puthra- "son, child;" Latin puer "child, boy," Oscan puklu "child."

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pen- 

a Brythonic (Celtic) word for "head;" common in place names in Cornwall and Wales (such as Penzance; see also pendragon and Pennsylvania).

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per- 

word-forming element common in words of French and Latin origin, meaning primarily "through," thus also "throughout; thoroughly; entirely, utterly," from Latin preposition per (see per (prep.)).

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