Etymology
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-parous 

word-forming element meaning "bearing, producing," from Latin -parus (as in viviparus "bringing forth young alive"), from parire "to produce, bring forth" (from PIE root *pere- (1) "to produce, procure").

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parvi- 

word-forming element used in science and meaning "small, little," from combining form of Latin parvus "small," which is from a metathesized form of PIE *pau-ro-, suffixed form of root *pau- (1) "few, little."

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-path 
word-forming element used in modern formations to mean "one suffering from" (a disease or condition), from Greek pathos "suffering" (from PIE root *kwent(h)- "to suffer"). Also "one versed in" (a certain type of treatment), in which cases it is a back-formation from -pathy in the related sense.
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-pathic 
word-forming element from Latin pathicus, from Greek pathikos "suffering, remaining passive," from pathein "to suffer" (from PIE root *kwent(h)- "to suffer").
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patho- 

before vowels path-, word-forming element in science and technical terms meaning "suffering, disease," from Greek pathos "suffering, disease" (from PIE root *kwent(h)- "to suffer").

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-pathy 

word-forming element meaning "feeling, suffering, emotion; disorder, disease," from Latin -pathia, from Greek -patheia "act of suffering, feeling" (from PIE root *kwent(h)- "to suffer"). Meaning "system of treatment of disease, method, cure, curative treatment" is abstracted from homeopathy (q.v.).

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patri- 

word-forming element used in terms describing kinship of the father or the paternal line, from Latin patri-, combining form of pater (see father (n.)).

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penta- 

word-forming element in words of Greek origin or formation meaning "five, containing five," from Greek penta- (before a vowel pent-), combining form of pente "five," related to Aeolian pempte (from PIE root *penkwe- "five"), with -a- probably by analogy of hepta-, ennea-, deka-.

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-phage 
word-forming element meaning "eater," from stem of Greek phagein "to eat," from PIE root *bhag- "to share out, apportion; to get a share."
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-phagous 
word-forming element meaning "eating, feeding on," from Latin -phagus, from Greek -phagos "eater of," from phagein "to eat," literally "to have a share of food," from PIE root *bhag- "to share out, apportion; to get a share."
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