Etymology
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paramount (adj.)

"supreme, superior in power or jurisdiction," 1530s, from Anglo-French paramont, Old French paramont "above" (in place, order, degree), mid-14c., from Old French par "by," from Latin per "through, for, by" (see per (prep.)) + amont "up," from a mont "upward" (see amount (v.)). The word is equivalent to the Latin phrase per ad montem, literally "to the hill." Related: Paramountcy.

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paramour (n.)

early 14c., "a lover or wooer" of either sex, noun use of adverbial phrase par amour (c. 1300) "passionately, with strong love or desire," from Anglo-French and Old French par amour, from accusative of amor "love," from amare "to love" (see Amy). Originally a term for Christ (by women) or the Virgin Mary (by men), it came to mean "darling, sweetheart" (mid-14c.) and "wife, husband," also, in a bad sense, "mistress, concubine; (a woman's) male lover; clandestine lover" (late 14c.) which from 17c. became the only sense, except in poetry.

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paranoia (n.)

"mental disorder characterized by systematized delusions of more or less definite scope," 1848 (earlier paranoea 1811), from Greek paranoia "mental derangement, madness," from paranoos "mentally ill, insane," from para- "beside, beyond" (see para- (1)) + noos "mind," which is of uncertain origin.

FOR several years frequent descriptions have been given in the foreign journals, especially German and Italian, of the forms of insanity designated by the names Paranoia, Verrücktkeit, and Wahnsinn. ["Paranoia — Systematized Delusions and Mental Degenerations," J. Séglas (transl. William Noyes), 1888]
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paranoiac 

1892 as an adjective, "pertaining to or exhibiting paranoia; also as a noun, "a patient exhibiting paranoia," from paranoia on model of maniac, etc.

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paranoid (adj.)

"resembling or characterized by paranoia," 1901, irregularly formed from paranoia + -oid. As a noun, "a paranoid person," attested by 1922.

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paranormal (adj.)

1905, in reference to observed events or things presumed to operate by natural laws but not conforming to those known or normal, from para- (1) + normal. Related: Paranormally.

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parapet (n.)

1580s, "wall or rampart rising breast-high," from French parapet "breastwork" (16c.), or directly from Italian parapetto, from para- "defense" (see para- (2)) + petto "breast," from Latin pectus (see pectoral (adj.)). Meaning "low wall at the edge of a structure to keep people from falling off" is from 1590s.

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paraph (n.)

"figure formed by a flourish of a pen at the conclusion of a signature" (a precaution against forgers), 1580s, from French parafe, paraphe "a paragraph, signature, a flourish," a shortened form of paragraph.

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paraphernalia (n.)

1650s, in law, "a woman's property besides her dowry," from Medieval Latin paraphernalia (short for paraphernalia bona "paraphernal goods"), neuter plural of paraphernalis (adj.), from Late Latin parapherna, in Roman law "a woman's property besides her dowry," from Greek parapherna, neuter plural, from para- "beside" (see para- (1)) + pherne "dowry," which is related to pherein "to carry," from PIE root *bher- (1) "to carry." Meaning "equipment, apparatus" is attested by 1736, from the notion of "odds and ends."

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paraphilia (n.)

"sexual perversion, deviate desires," 1913, from German paraphilie (by 1903), apparently coined by Austrian ethnologist Friedrich Salomo Krauss (1859-1938) as meaning "inverted erotic instinct," from Greek para- "beside, aside" (see para- (1)) + philos "loving" (see -phile). Popularized in psychology circles in English from c. 1918 in translation of work by Viennese-born psychotherapist Wilhelm Stekel (1868-1940); not in widespread use until 1950s. It was added to the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" in 1980 as a morally neutral and more dignified label than perversion, to which it is nonetheless etymologically similar. Related: Paraphiliac; paraphilic.

The neurotic whose accompanying fancies always lead into forbidden ground (and this is what constitutes the guilt feeling of pollutions) fights against masturbation [pollutions] because it is connected with incest fancies, criminal desires, perversions, or as F.S. Krauss calls them, paraphilias. [Wm. J. Robinson, M.D., "Masturbation — Injurious or Harmless," "American Journal of Urology," May 1913]
Krauss bereichert uns um das neue Wort "Paraphilie" anstelle der "Psychopathie," ein fortschrittlich-oppositionelles Wort zwar, aber auch nur ein Wort und als Aufklärung etwa so bedeutsam wie "Seitensprünge." ["Rezensionen" über die "Anthropophyteia Jahrbücher," Leipzig, 1907]
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