Etymology
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paleolithic (adj.)

"of or pertaining to the earlier Stone Age," 1865, coined by John Lubbock, later Baron Avebury (1834-1913), from paleo- + Greek lithos "stone" + -ic. Opposed to the neolithic, and supposedly characterized by less progress in methods of making tools and weapons from rough stone. Paleolith for "stone implement of prehistoric age" is attested from 1879.

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paleontologist (n.)

also palaeontologist, "one versed in the study of the former life of the Earth as preserved in fossils," 1836, from paleontology + -ist.

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paleontology (n.)

also palaeontology, "the science of the former life of the Earth, as preserved in fossils," 1833, probably from French paléontologie, from Greek palaios "old, ancient" (see paleo-) + ontologie "science or study of being and the essence of things" (see ontology). Related: Paleontological.

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Paleozoic (adj.)

in reference to the geological era between the Precambrian and the Mesozoic, a geological series characterized by the earliest record of modern life forms, 1838, coined by Adam Sedgwick (1785-1873) from paleo- "ancient" + Greek zoe "life" (from PIE root *gwei- "to live") + -ic.

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paleozoology (n.)

"study of extinct or fossil animals," 1845, from paleo- + zoology.

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Palestine 

from Latin Palestina (name of a Roman province), from Greek Palaistinē (Herodotus), from Hebrew Pelesheth "Philistia, land of the Philistines" (see Philistine). In Josephus, the country of the Philistines; extended under Roman rule to all Judea and later to Samaria and Galilee.

Revived as an official political territorial name 1920 with the British mandate. Under Turkish rule, Palestine was part of three administrative regions: the Vilayet of Beirut, the Independent Sanjak of Jerusalem, and the Vilayet of Damascus. In 1917 the country was conquered by British forces who held it under occupation until the mandate was established April 25, 1920, by the Supreme Council of the Allied Powers at San Remo. During the occupation Palestine formed "Occupied Enemy Territory Administration (South)," with headquarters at Jerusalem.

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Palestinian 

1875 (adj.) "of or pertaining to the Holy Land;" 1905 (n.) "an inhabitant of Palestine," from Palestine + -ian. Also in early use with reference to Jews who settled or advocated Jewish settlement in that place.

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palestra (n.)

c. 1400, palestre, "ancient Greek gymnasium," from Old French palestre (12c.) and directly from Latin palaestra, from Greek palaistra "gymnasium, public place for exercise under official direction," originally "wrestling school," from palaiein "to wrestle, survive a wrestling match," which is of unknown origin (see discussion in Beekes) + -tra, suffix denoting place. The noun palē "wrestling" is a back-formation from the verb. Palestral "pertaining to wrestling or martial games, athletic" is attested from late 14c. 

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palette (n.)

1620s, "flat, thin tablet, with a hole at one end for the thumb, used by an artist to lay and mix colors," from French palette, from Old French palete "small shovel, blade" (13c.) diminutive of pale "shovel, blade," from Latin pala "spade, shoulder blade," probably from PIE *pag-slo-, suffixed form of root *pag- "to fasten." Transferred sense of "colors used by a particular artist" is from 1882. Palette-knife, originally one used by artists for mixing colors, is attested by 1759.

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palfrey (n.)

c. 1200, palefrei (mid-12c. as a surname), "saddle horse for ordinary riding (opposed to a war horse), a fine, small horse for ladies," from Old French palefroi (11c., palefreid) and directly from Medieval Latin palafredus, altered by dissimilation from Late Latin paraveredus "post horse for outlying districts" (6c.), originally "extra horse," from Greek para "beside, secondary" (see para-) + Medieval Latin veredus "post horse; light, fast horse used by couriers," which is probably from Gaulish *voredos, from Celtic *wo-red- (source also of Welsh gorwydd "horse," Old Irish riadaim "I ride"), from PIE root *reidh- "to ride" (see ride (v.)). The Latin word passed to Old High German as pfarifrid, and in modern German it has become the usual word for "horse" (Pferd).

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