Etymology
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Ottoman 

in reference to the branch of Turks which founded and ruled the Ottoman Empire, 1580s (n.), c. 1600 (adj.), from French Ottoman via Italian Ottomano, ultimately from Arabic 'Uthmani "of or belonging to 'Uthman," Arabic masc. proper name, which in Turkish is pronounced Othman (see Osmanli). The founder of the dynasty reigned 1259-1326. Because -i was a plural inflection in Italian, the ending of the word was altered by formation of a new false singular. Byron used the more correct form Othman (perhaps for the sake of metrics as well as accuracy), and a few writers have followed him.

The type of couch or cushioned seat without back or arms (used in drawing-rooms and sitting-rooms) was so called by 1806, because one reclines on it, which was associated with Eastern customs (see couch (n.1)). By 1849 the word was extended to a small version of this used as a footstool or low seat.

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Osmanli 

1792, "an Ottoman Turk," especially a member of the ruling dynasty; as an adjective by 1829, "relating to the empire of Turkey," from Turkish Osmanli "of or pertaining to Osman," founder of the Ottoman dynasty (he reigned 1259-1326); his name is the Turkish pronunciation of Arabic Uthman. This is the native word where English generally uses Ottoman. In early use as a noun in English often mistakenly regarded as a plural.

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Porte (n.)

"Ottoman court at Constantinople," c. 1600, from French, in full, la Sublime Porte, literally "the high gate," translation of Arabic al-Bab al-'Ali, "lofty gate," official name of the central office of the Ottoman government (compare Vatican for "the Papacy," White House for "the United States"). Compare also Mikado. The name supposedly is a relic of the ancient custom of holding royal audience in the doorway of a king's palace or tent.

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bow-string (n.)
also bowstring, "the string of a bow," late 14c., from bow (n.1) + string (n.). In the Ottoman Empire, used for strangling offenders.
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Mikado (n.)

1727, former title of the emperor of Japan, from mi "honorable" + kado "gate, portal." Similar to Sublime Porte, old title of the Ottoman emperor/government, and Pharaoh, which literally means "great house."

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sanjak (n.)

Ottoman administrative district, a subdivision of a vilayet, from Turkish sanjaq, literally "flag, banner." "So called because the governor is entitled to carry in war a standard of one horse-tail" [Century Dictionary]. Related: Sanjakate; sanjak-bey.

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hospodar (n.)

former title of appointed Ottoman governors of Moldavia and Wallachia, 1680s, from Old Church Slavonic gospodi "lord, master," literally "lord of strangers," from gosti "guest, friend," from PIE *ghostis- "stranger" (from root *ghos-ti- "stranger, guest, host"); second element from PIE root *poti- "powerful; lord." Compare host (n.1).

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Turk (n.)
c. 1300, from French Turc, from Medieval Latin Turcus, from Byzantine Greek Tourkos, Persian turk, a national name, of unknown origin. Said to mean "strength" in Turkish. Compare Chinese tu-kin, recorded from c. 177 B.C.E. as the name of a people living south of the Altai Mountains (identified by some with the Huns). In Persian, turk, in addition to the national name, also could mean "a beautiful youth," "a barbarian," "a robber."

In English, the Ottoman sultan was the Grand Turk (late 15c.), and the Turk was used collectively for the Turkish people or for Ottoman power (late 15c.). From 14c. and especially 16c.-18c. Turk could mean "a Muslim," reflecting the Turkish political power's status in the Western mind as the Muslim nation par excellence. Hence Turkery "Islam" (1580s); turn Turk "convert to Islam."

Meaning "person of Irish descent" is first recorded 1914 in U.S., apparently originating among Irish-Americans; of unknown origin (Irish torc "boar, hog" has been suggested). Young Turk (1908) was a member of an early 20c. political group in the Ottoman Empire that sought rejuvenation of the Turkish nation. Turkish bath is attested from 1640s; Turkish delight from 1877.
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Constantinople 

from 330 C.E. to 1930 the name of what is now Istanbul and formerly was Byzantium, the city on the European side of the Bosphorus that served as the former capital of the Byzantine and Ottoman empires, from Greek Konstantinou polis "Constantine's city," named for Roman emperor Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (see Constantine), who transferred the Roman capital there.

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sublime (adj.)

1580s, "expressing lofty ideas in an elevated manner," from French sublime (15c.), or directly from Latin sublimis "uplifted, high, borne aloft, lofty, exalted, eminent, distinguished," possibly originally "sloping up to the lintel," from sub "up to" (see sub-) + limen "lintel, threshold, sill" (see limit (n.)). The sublime (n.) "the sublime part of anything, that which is stately or imposing" is from 1670s. For Sublime Porte, former title of the Ottoman government, see Porte.

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