mid-15c., ortographie, ortografie, "branch of knowledge concerned with correct or proper spelling," from Old French ortografie (13c.), from Latin orthographia, from Greek orthographia "correct writing," from orthos "correct" (see ortho-) + root of graphein "to write" (see -graphy.
The classical spelling was restored in English and French (orthographie) in early 16c. The meaning "branch of language study which treats of the nature and properties of letters" is from 1580s. An early 15c. glossary has ryght wrytynge as translation of ortographia. Related: Orthographer.
1660s, in reference to a type of perspective in drawings, etc., from ortho- "true, correct" + -graphic "of or pertaining to drawing" (see graphic (adj.)). Meaning "belonging to the writing of words with proper letters, relating to the spelling of words" is by 1868, from orthography + -ic. Related: Orthographically (used from 1610s in reference to spelling).
consonant combination used in French orthography to represent the Arabic letter jim; it appears in some words from Arabic, Turkish, etc. taken into English via French.
bright star in the ancient constellation Piscis Austrinus (the Southern Fish, to distinguish it from Pisces), 1594, from Arabic Fum al Hut "the Fish's Mouth," which describes its position in the imaginary star-picture. Allen  notes among its various spellings Fomahant, Fumahaud, Phom Ahut, Fomahand, Fontabant, and Phomelhaut and writes that "No other star seems to have had so varied an orthography," adding that the name "generally, but wrongly" was pronounced fo-ma-lo, as if from French.