Etymology
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white elephant (n.)
"burdensome charge, inconvenient thing that one does not know how to get rid of," 1851, supposedly from the practice of the King of Siam of presenting one of the sacred albino elephants to a courtier who had fallen from favor; the gift was a great honor, but the proper upkeep of one was ruinously expensive.
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carbon monoxide (n.)
1869, so called because it consists of one carbon and one oxygen atom (as opposed to carbon dioxide, which has two of the latter). An older name for it was carbonic oxide gas.
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light bulb (n.)
also lightbulb, 1884, from light (n.) + bulb (n.). Changing one as figurative of something easy to do is from 1920s; jokes about how many of a certain type it takes to change one date from 1971.
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quid pro quo 

"one thing in place of another," 1560s, from Latin, literally "something for something, one thing for another," from nominative (quid) and ablative (quo) neuter singulars of relative pronoun qui "who" (from PIE root *kwo-, stem of relative and interrogative pronouns) + pro "for" (see pro-).

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E pluribus unum 

motto of the United States, being one nation formed by uniting several states, 1782, Latin, from e "out of" (see ex-); ablative plural of plus "more" (see plus (n.)); neuter of unus "one" (from PIE root *oi-no- "one, unique"). Not found in classical Latin, though a variant of the phrase appears in Virgil (color est e pluribus unum); the full phrase was the motto of the popular Gentleman's Magazine from 1731 into the 1750s.

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taedium vitae 
Latin, "weariness of life; a deep disgust with life tempting one to suicide."
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birthday suit (n.)
first attested 1730s, but probably much older. The notion is the suit of clothes one was born in, i.e., no clothes at all. Compare Middle English mother naked "naked as the day one was born;" Middle Dutch moeder naect, German mutternackt.
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easy chair (n.)
also easy-chair, one designed especially for comfort, 1707, from easy + chair (n.).
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ne plus ultra 
"utmost limit to which one can go," Latin, literally "no more beyond;" the motto traditionally inscribed on the Pillars of Hercules.
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nem. con. 

abbreviation of Latin phrase nemine contradicente "no one dissenting," hence, "without opposition." From ablative of nemo "nobody" + ablative present participle of contradicere.

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